Rare Green Galaxies Provide Insight to Ancient Universe

Rare Green Galaxies Provide Insight to Ancient Universe

green galaxy

UCLA astronomers recently discovered that most, if not all early galaxies had a green hue due to their intense heat and special chemistry. “The discovery that young galaxies are so unexpectedly bright [with green light] … will dramatically change and improve the way that we study galaxy formation throughout the history of the universe,” said UCLA physics Professor Matthew Malkan in a statement.

Galaxies normally glow white, with slight variations in color. Galaxies with a lot of hydrogen gas, which signal young galaxies and star formation, can look slightly pink, for instance. Others with red stars can have red, orange or yellow tints.

Green galaxies are much more rare, because they require very specific conditions.

Condition 1:

A supernovae to spawn oxygen formation.

Condition 2:

Stars that burn at around 50,000 degrees Kelvin, approaching temperatures of the hottest known stars in the universe. The hot stars can then ionize the oxygen clouds two times to create a green-glowing O++ “doubly-ionized” cloud in the green light spectrum.

Usually, those stars only exist in very small “dwarf galaxies,” with one of the most common types being “green pea galaxies.”

Malkan and his team pored through the Subaru Deep Field, created by the 8.2 meter (27-foot) Subaru Telescope in Hawaii, and found that all the small galaxies were “surprisingly strong emitters” of green light. Furthermore, the early universe (under 2 billion years old and 70 times more dense than today) is made up mostly from such dwarf galaxies.

What is great is that future spacecraft like the James Webb Space Telescope (launching in 2018), and the WFIRST are equipped with O++ spectrum detectors. The aim is to spot very young galaxies forming their first stars and supernovae, and according to Malkan’s research, they’ll have plenty of targets to check. Malkan stated,”Detecting and studying the intense green glow from the youngest galaxies now looks like our best opportunity for learning how the first galaxies evolved.”

Photo source and reference: Engadget

Ancient Tale of Sun’s Behavior Revealed By Tree Rings

tree ring

What we now know is that the sun has been in the same routine for at least 290 million years, according to research.

On January 9th 2017, it was proposed that Ancient tree rings from the Permian period record a roughly 11-year cycle of wet and dry periods, climate fluctuations caused by the ebbing and flowing of solar activity, in Geology. The discovery would push back the earliest evidence of today’s 11-year solar cycle by tens of millions of years.


“The sun has apparently been doing what it’s been doing today for a long time,” Nat Gopalswamy, a solar scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., who was not involved in the study said in Science News.

The sun’s brightness and the frequency of sunspots and solar flares completes one round of waxing and waning every 11 years. These solar changes alter the intensity of sunlight reaching Earth and, some scientists hypothesize, may affect the composition of the stratosphere and rates of cloud formation. Those effects could alter rainfall rates, which in turn influence tree growth.

That is how ancient trees may hold clues to similar cycles from long ago.

In what is now southeast Germany, volcanic eruptions buried an ancient forest under debris roughly 290 million years ago. Paleontologists Ludwig Luthardt and Ronny Rößler of the Natural History Museum in Chemnitz, Germany, identified tree rings in the fossilized remains of the trees.

By measuring the widths of the rings, it showed how much the plants grew each year, so the researchers could discover a cycle in growth rates. The cycle lasted on average 10.62 years. This cycle reflects years-long rises and falls in annual rainfall rates caused by the solar cycle. The cycle’s average length falls within the 10.44-year to 11.16-year length of the sunspot cycle seen over the last few hundred years according to the research.

Are solar and tree ring cycles connected?

While this isn’t certain according to paleoclimatologist Adam Csank of the University of Nevada, Reno, the research can still continue.

Image source and reference: https://www.sciencenews.org/



A group of scientists in a plane caught sight of a mysterious piece of space junk right as it burned up in Earth’s atmosphere above the Indian Ocean near Sri Lanka in November of 2016.

NASA and other space agencies around the world monitor a large percentage of the millions of bits of space debris that orbit the planet, and researchers had been expecting the object — appropriately named WT1190F — to re-enter Earth’s atmosphere when it was first spotted in October.

The International Astronomical Center (IAC) and the United Arab Emirates Space Agency hosted a team of veteran U.S. and German observers of spacecraft reentries to study the reentry of the object, which was approximately 1 meter (about 3 feet) in size. The object burned up on reentry and was not a threat to anyone on Earth due to its low density and small size.

But months, they still aren’t sure what the object actually was. They do have some ideas. The leading theory is that it’s the second stage of a rocket — though they have no idea which rocket.

Jonathan McDowell, an astrophysicist at the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, told Scientific American that this could very likely be a lost piece of space history, returning to haunt us. According to the ESA, 8,500 objects larger than 10 cm orbit the Earth, along with 150,000 objects larger than 1 cm.


Image source and reference: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/wt1190f-safely-reenters-earth-s-atmosphere-provides-research-opportunity


Possible Life on Saturn’s Moon



In the fall of 2016, NASA’s Cassini spacecraft, which has been exploring Saturn since 2004, got closer than ever to an extraterrestrial ocean on Enceladus, which is one of the planet’s 62 moons. During its daring dive into an icy plume erupting from the moon’s south pole, Cassini sampled the spray to figure out what’s lurking beneath the surface.

“Enceladus is not just an ocean world. It’s a world that might provide a habitable environment for life as we know it,” Cassini program scientist Curt Niebur said at that time.

But even if the ocean material is full of little lifeforms, Cassini or any of us won’t know it. The spacecraft wasn’t built to actually detect life. Its instruments don’t have the ability to parse out sure signs, like DNA, from the icy spray.

Instead, scientists are hoping to learn more about the pH balance and molecular composition of the water. NASA is still analyzing the data from that October flyby. In the best-case scenario, the spacecraft might be able to determine if the small moon’s ocean could be habitable.

Cassini’s mission will end when it runs out of fuel sometime this year, 2017. Until then, the probe will be making its final observations of many of Saturn’s moons.

But is possible for life on Saturn’s Moon?

With a diameter of just 310 miles Enceladus is nevertheless the sixth largest of Saturn’s more than 60 moons, orbiting at a distance of just two planet-widths. Cassini has shown that Enceladus is the source of huge geysers of neutral water-rich gas and ice grains erupting at a rate of 220-660 lbs per second. This makes Enceladus the second most active object, after Jupiter’s moon Io which ejects 2200 lbs per second of sulphur-rich material.

Gravity measurements have shown that there is at least a local and possibly a global ocean under Enceladus’ icy crust, and some of the emitted grains are rich in sodium salt, which indicates the presence of a salty ocean. Now we also discover that some are silicate-rich, and analysis shows that these may have been produced close to hydrothermal vents at temperatures above 194°F. This raises the interesting comparison with hydrothermal vents on Earth, which may have played a role in the origin of life on our planet.

For life as we know it to exist, four key ingredients are important: liquid water; the right chemistry involving the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulphur; a source of heat; and enough time for life to develop. While we know these conditions exist on Earth, planetary research throughout the solar system shows that it may exist on other objects too, and the details from research pushes Enceladus towards the top of the list.

Image source and Reference: Discover Magazine



The 8,000-year-old Kazakhstan Puzzle

nasa image

The mysterious earthworks known as the Steppe Geoglyphs are thousands of years in the making. Scattered throughout remote parts of Kazakhstan and only visible from high above, their patterns vary in shapes — from giant rings to swastikas.

There are nearly 300 of these strange works, the oldest of which was constructed at least 8,000 years ago. And no one, including scores of scientists who have studied them, really knows why they’re there. The theory is that they came from an ancient settlement.

Dmitriy Dey, who first spotted them in 2007 on Google Earth — he was looking for ancient pyramids at the time — thinks they may have been built as “horizontal observatories to track the movements of the rising sun,” according to a New York Times interview last year.

The ancient relics are so puzzling that NASA has been working to unravel the mystery. From 430 miles above the Earth, the space agency captured some of the clearest images, which were released in late 2015.

Amateur archaeologist Dmitriy Dey first discovered the geoglyphs in 2007 using Google Earth. Since then, Dey has already discovered 260 forms of the land design, which look like strange versions of crop circles and coming in a variety of shapes.

Another formation, called Ushtogaysky Square, is 810,000 square feet—with each side as long as an aircraft carrier. To make the shape more complex, there is an X shape that runs through the middle of the square.

These formations, however, would seem normal when placed side by side the Turgai Swastika, which, as the name suggests, resembles the infamous swastika. Of course when one thinks of swastika, they think of Nazi Germany, however the swastika is a far more ancient and sacred Vedic Indian symbol that the Nazis repurposed.

All of these formations can be found at the northern region of Kazakhstan, which offered rich hunting grounds for nomadic Stone Age tribes.

Persis B. Clarkson, an archaeologist at the University of Winnipeg, said these geoglyphs are making him and his colleagues rethink what they know about human civilisation.

“The idea that foragers could amass the numbers of people necessary to undertake large-scale projects—like creating the Kazakhstan geoglyphs—has caused archaeologists to deeply rethink the nature and timing of sophisticated large-scale human organisation as one that predates settled and civilised societies,” Clarkson said, as quoted by Gizmodo

Image source and reference: http://www.independent.co.uk/


Meditation: the mysterious origins of the world’s most popular ancient practice

Meditation is as common today as aerobics, with millions of people using it for stress release, peak performance and spiritual enlightenment.

Even CEOs and Hollywood celebrities are now using it to master themselves and gain an untouchable advantage!

But the origins of this ancient practice may just surprise you…

According to archeological and scientific data, we know that recorded evidence of meditation has been in existence for over 4,600 years, and that recorded history has been around for 6,000 years in Mesopotamia.

Around 3,000 B.C., when writing developed in the Indus Valley, the ancient scripture of the Tantras mentioned meditation, specifically the Vigyan Bhairav Tantra.

It contains 112 techniques of meditation in the form of a dialogue between the legendary Shiva and his wife Parvati (referred to as Devi in the book), where he discusses 112 meditation techniques to find one’s true self.



And then there was Mohenjo-daro.

In the 1920’s, while excavating the city known as Mohenjo-daro, the archeologist Sir John Marshall discovered a carved figure on a seal of a yogi sitting in meditation pose:

The estimated time period it came from? 2,600 B.C.

Mohenjo-daro was the capital city of the Indus Valley Civilization which spanned across Pakistan and India and included approximately 5 million people.

It’s perhaps no wonder that such a rich, enduring and sprawling civilization could have given birth to this timeless practice.

Some researchers have lamented that if only recorded history could be stretched even further back, we would find even more priceless gems of ancient wisdom in this region.

Why should an ancient explorer care about meditation?

Because seeking wisdom is what being an explorer is all about.

And we believe the greatest wisdom isn’t just hidden in ancient ruins and civilizations – but deep inside ourselves.

As the mythical deity Shiva told his wife – the greatest journey of all doesn’t require travel gear or horses, but rather an open mind.

That’s why Ancient Explorers founder Amish Shah has prepared a free online experience focused on what is perhaps the most powerful ancient practice since the beginning of time.

How it works couldn’t be more simple.

On June 2nd and June 4th, we invite you to a two LIVE session events that show you just that.  

From experiential online group meditations to eye-opening tutorials and interviews with the world’s leading scientists and spiritual leaders, join Project:Yourself on a FREE series of online events exploring the deepest layers of your consciousness & potential.

And no prior meditation experience is necessary.

The first class on Tuesday June 2nd is 90 minutes packed with reality bending ancient wisdom and space age personal growth tools, at 11 am PST.

The second session on Thursday June 4th is a full-day virtual hangout featuring Deep Dive sessions with some of the world’s most brilliant human potential experts:


Zahi Hawass Walks Out During Debate with Graham Hancock


Last week, historian Graham Hancock was to debate former Egyptian Antiquities Minister Zahi Hawass on the origins and function of the Giza pyramids. However, when Hawass discovered that Hancock would be making a reference to the Orion Correlation Theory and using a picture of theorist Robert Bauval in his slideshow, Hawass demanded Hancock remove all references to the work of a man Hawass considers a “thief.” (Hawass and Bauval have some history you could say on disagreement). When Hancock refused to do so, Hawass stormed out of the theater and refused to engage in a debate. Instead, both men gave separate lectures without interacting. Their interaction was caught on tape:

As they continued, when asked about the 10,000-year-old Turkish megalithic site Göbekli Tepe, and the impact this site might have on Egypt’s archeology and on the controversy over the age of the Sphinx, Hawass admits he had never heard of Göbekli Tepe before in the video below:

What do you think, Explorers?


Photo credit: http://timeofanewera.com/

3,000 Year Old Gold Rings Found in a Rossett Field

This article was written by the staff reporter at News North Wales.


A MAN struck gold twice when he found rare decorative rings which could date back more than 3,000 years.

John Adamson, 42, discovered two Bronze Age lock-rings just a few feet apart in a field in Rossett.

The rings date from about 1000BC and are only the fifth and sixth of their type ever found in Wales.

They may have been buried as gifts to the gods by their ancient owners, experts said.

Mr Adamson found the first ring while hunting for treasure in the field in June, 2012 and sent it to the National Museum of Liverpool, before later reporting his find to the Coroner’s Office when it was deemed it might be treasure.

Then while on another hunt in the same field nine months later in March, 2013, he found a second lock ring just a few feet from where he found the first.

At an inquest to determine whether or not Mr Adamson’s finds were officially treasure at Ruthin County Hall yesterday, John Gittins, coroner for North Wales East and Central, said the decision was an “easy call”.

In order to satisfy the conditions for treasure, finds must be more than 300 years old and have a precious metal content of more than 10 per cent.

A report compiled by Adam Gwilt, curator in later pre-history at the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff, said both rings were more than 70 per cent gold, with small amounts of silver and copper.

Because of their composition and age the coroner was satisfied they could be classified as treasure.

He added the Wrexham Museum and Archives Service would acquire the rings using money from the Heritage Lottery Fund after they were independently valued.

Compensation for the find would be split between Mr Adamson and the landowner in Rossett.

The exact location of the find cannot be revealed, but Mr Adamson, of Runcorn, told the inquest he decided to visit Rossett as it had earlier proved a fruitful spot for the discovery of Celtic hoards.

After the inquest Mr Adamson said: “I was overjoyed when I found the second one. Over the nine months after finding the first one, I’d gone out there again about 12 times.

“I thought ‘there’s one, so there’s bound to be another’.”

Ancient Coin Discovered at Bristol Channel Predates Jesus Christ

This story first appeared in BBC News.




A 2,300-year-old coin found after flooding along the River Avon near Bath has revealed details of early maritime activity up the Bristol Channel. The 20mm coin was spotted in receding floodwaters in 2012, but the owner kept the details private until now.

It has been verified by the British Museum and is understood to be a Carthaginian coin, minted around Sardinia in 300-264 BC. Several similar examples have been recorded but only from the coastline.

On one side of the coin is an image of Tanit – a Punic and Phoenician goddess – and on the reverse is a horse’s head. Its owner wishes to remain anonymous but has allowed it to be included in a history project in Saltford, where the coin was found.

Project organiser Phil Harding said: “[The coin] predates the Great Wall of China, it predates the Roman Empire, it predates the birth of Jesus Christ, it predates Alfred the Great – it’s just fantastic.”

Dr Sam Moorhead, who recorded it for the British Museum, said it could have been struck at one of several mints in the Punic Empire, including Carthage and cities in Sardinia. “It is certainly one of the earliest coins found in Britain,” he said, adding other examples had been found from Cornwall, around the south coast to Kent, and up the east coast to Lincolnshire.

“It has been argued for a long time that these coins reflect trade with the Mediterranean, probably often via Gaul. The main commodity that Britain had which was wanted by the Carthaginians and others was tin, found in Cornwall and Devon. The Saltford coin does suggest that there was maritime activity up the Bristol Channel as well and we can imagine traders entering the River Severn.”


Accidental Discovery of an Underground City!

This article first appeared in Metro.co.uk  and is written by Rob Waugh

E1G5RR view of derinkuyu underground city

It sounds like something out of The Lord of the Rings – a huge, underground city of tunnels lit by oil lamps, with room for more than 20,000 people, just underneath people’s feet. But a vast subterranean city has just been uncovered in Cappadocia – completely by accident.

Workers in Turkey found the entrance to a vast underground labyrinth underneath homes scheduled for demolition in the city of Nevsehir. Workers moving piles of Earth found the signs of a huge network of tunnels thought to date back 5,000 years.


The find echoes the famous discovery of another underground city, Derinkuyu (pictured), an 18-story complex was found in the area when a man knocked down a wall in his basement in 1963. The new underground city is thought be even bigger – built, like Derinkuyu, during the Byzantine era, to protect the occupants from religious wars in the region.

Derinkuyu’s residents could close themselves in using gigantic stone doors.

This new discovery will be added as a new pearl, a new diamond, a new gold,”  the mayor of Nevsehir, Hasan Unver, said to National Geographic.

When the underground city beneath Nevsehir Castle is completely revealed, it is almost certain to change the destination of Cappadocia dramatically. Early estimates suggest that the city, uncovered in 2012, could be one-third bigger than Derinkuyu.

Planned renovation works have been called off as archaeologists investigate the tunnels.