100,000 Year Old Ruins of South Africa

This article first appeared on grahamhancock.com and is written by Micheal Tellinger.

The history of southern Africa is one of the great untold stories of the world. It has remained a guarded mystery by traditional knowledge keepers and African shaman for thousands of years. But in 2003 everything changed with the accidental and serendipitous discovery of an ancient stone calendar that caused a chain reaction of events, which led us to decoding one of the greatest missing pieces regarding our human origins and the activity of the Anunnaki on planet Earth.

Many history books and scholars have told us that the first civilisation on Earth emerged in a land called Sumer, some 6000 years ago. This Sumerian civilisation left behind a detailed account of human activity in millions of clay tablets that continue to reveal critical human behaviour and outlines the relationship between the Anunna gods and the people of Sumer.

But our archaeological discoveries that began in 2003 suggest that the Sumerians may have inherited much of their knowledge from a civilisation that emerged many thousands of years earlier in southern Africa, already thought to be the cradle of humankind. These discoveries also suggest that the same deities, who have become known as the Anunnaki through the works of Zecharia Sitchin and many others, were also very active in the lives of the people of southern Africa, more than 200,000 years ago.

In 2003, a strange arrangement of large stones that were neatly planted at the edge of a cliff near the town of Kaapschehoop, South Africa, was spotted by Johan Heine from his aeroplane. After returning to the spot the next day to see the site on the ground, he instantly realised that this was no ordinary, nor natural arrangement of monoliths, and so began a process of measurements and calculations that lasted several years. His meticulous analysis clearly shows that this was an ancient calendar that is aligned with the movements of the sun, solstices and equinoxes, and that we can still mark every day of the year by the movement of the shadows cast on the flat surface of the calendar stone at the centre of the site.

But as it is with many ancient sites, including Stonehenge, the calendar aspect is not the main purpose of this structure, but merely a crucial feature built into the site. We have discovered deeper and more mysterious functions that only became apparent after many electronic and scientific measurements several years later.

Through its alignment with the stars and the movement of the sun, this African Stonehenge that I named ‘Adam’s Calendar’ has for the first time created a link to the countless other stone ruins in southern Africa, and suggests that these ruins are much older than we initially thought and forces us to start rethinking the activity by early humans in the so-called “Cradle of Humankind”.

The discovery of this calendar site was nothing new to Johan Heine, who had already spent at least 15 years photographing mysterious circular stone structures scattered throughout the mountains and valleys of southern Africa. These circular stone ruins have become affectionately known as the “stone circles” and they lie scattered in large clusters throughout the entire sub-continent that includes South Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana and parts of Mozambique. The complex that links Nelspruit, Waterval Boven, Machadodorp, Carolina, Badplaas, Dullstroom and Lydenburg, and has a radius of approximately 60 kilometres, covering an area larger then modern-day Los Angeles, has emerged as the largest and most mysterious ancient city on Earth.

The discovery of a bird statue that resembles Horus carved out of dolerite, a small sphinx about 1,5 metres long carved out of the same dolerite rock, a petroglyph of a winged disk, many carvings of Sumerian crosses in circles and an ankh in a radiating circle suggest that the prototype Sumerian and Egyptian civilisations had their origins in southern Africa thousands of years before they emerged in the north.

After meeting Johan Heine in early 2007, he invited me, along with a large group of the most senior scholars in the field of archaeology, history and geology from several South African universities, to experience the spectacular vista of the ruins from a helicopter, an event that spanned an entire weekend. Though this was an incredible opportunity of a birds-eye-view of the stone circles, on the day of the event, I was the only one to arrive. And so, I alone gained new perspective and became the one that carried the torch of future research and investigation.

Six years of research by a group of independent scientists and explorers has delivered what may be the crucial missing elements in our understanding of the lives and development of early modern humans. Our discoveries have been noted in two books – Adam’s Calendar and African Temples of The Anunnaki and will be updated in the soon to be released The Lost City of ENKI. But the research has also shown that these stone settlements represent the most mysterious and misunderstood structures found to date. It points to a civilisation that lived at the southern tip of Africa, mining gold for more than 200,000 years, and then completely and suddenly vanished from the radar. We may be looking at the activities of the oldest civilisation on Earth.

Little did I know that when I named the newly discovered stone calendar “Adam’s Calendar” how close to the truth I would be. This was only revealed to me by the preeminent Zulu Shaman Credo Mutwa some 2 years later, when he told me that he was initiated at the site in 1937 as a young shaman, and that this site is known to African knowledge keepers as Inzalo Ye Langa, or “Birthplace of The Sun”, where “heaven mated with mother earth” and where humanity was created by the gods.

But Credo went even further in his detailed explanation of the deep significance of the site when he explained that it was not just any god of the ancient times that created humanity, but specifically a deity that is know in Zulu as “Enkai”, the same deity know as ENKI in the Sumerian texts. This throws a whole new spin on our understanding of the Anunnaki on Earth and the “fingerprints” they left not only on ancient stone ruins but also the genetic manipulation and creation of the human race. These fingerprints have now been very clearly exposed in our genetic makeup by the brilliant work of William Brown, a molecular biologist and geneticist of the highest order who is part of the research team of Nassim Haramein’s Resonance Project Research Foundation, on the island of Kauai.

Out of Synch Alignments

After surveying Adam’s Calendar, it turned out that the north, south, east, west alignment is out by 3 degrees – 17 minutes – 43 sec in an anti-clockwise direction. This may be a critical discovery regarding turbulent times in antiquity because it irrefutably proves that the earth’s north-south alignment today, is not where it was when the calendar was constructed. It irrefutably proves that our planet has undergone a crustal displacement, or something along those lines, taking the north-south pole alignment with it. The theory of Crustal Shift or Crustal Displacement was proposed by scientist Charles Hapgood and strongly supported by Albert Einstein. Adam’s Calendar gives us the geophysical proof that such events did actually occur. What we do not know however at this stage, is when this shift happened.

Mysterious ancient ruins of southern Africa.

Until I started my research in 2007, it was generally accepted by scholars that there are about 20,000 ancient stone ruins scattered throughout the mountains of southern Africa. Modern historians have been speculating about the origins of these ruins, often calling them “cattle kraal of little historic importance”. The truth of the matter is that closer scientific inspection paints a completely different and astonishing new picture about the ancient history of these stone ruins. The scientific reality is that we actually know very little about these spectacular ancient ruins and it is a great tragedy that thousands have already been destroyed, and continue to be destroyed through sheer ignorance by power lines, forestry, municipalities, farmers and new housing developments.

After my personal explorations on foot and by air over the ruins, I confidently estimated the number of ancient stone ruins to be well over 100,000. This figure was confirmed by Prof. Revil Mason in January 2009. But after doing an extensive count on Google Earth and other aerial photographs I concluded that there are at least a staggering 10 million of these circular ruins. The mystery deepened when I found out that they have no doors or entrances in their original form and therefore could not have been dwellings. They were all originally connected by what we now call channels – (which our history books call roads that tribes drove their cattle on) – and are also surrounded and connected to an ongoing grid of agricultural terraces that cover more than 450,000 square kilometres. This clearly points to a vast vanished civilisation who grew crops on a gigantic scale.

Population Problem

This immediately poses a huge problem for archaeologists, anthropologists and historians because the accepted history of this part of the planet does not at any time in our past place anywhere nearly enough people here to have built this number of structures. It gets even more complex when you realise that these were not just isolated structures left behind by migrating hunter-gatherers, but a giant complex of circular structures all connected by the strange channels and suspended in a never-ending web of agricultural terraces. If we were to assume that these were dwellings, it would suggest a population of at least 10 million people – which is unimaginable to most of us today.

Ancient Gold Fields

It is important to note that the mysterious ruins of southern Africa, which include Great Zimbabwe and millions of similar ruins in that country, also extend into neighbouring areas like Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, Kenya and Mozambique. But why were these ancient people here in the first place? What were they doing?

The past 200 years has seen a number of explorers write in great detail about these ruins, but their findings have been largely forgotten and their books are out of print. Most of these early explorers write about thousands of ancient mine shafts found in close proximity to these ruins. In fact, most of these mines have been described as gold mines, copper, tin and iron mines. In my personal experience and research I have found at least 25 ancient mine shafts in gold-rich areas and been told about dozens more by farmers all over South Africa. Ancient mines covered by 30 metres of soil have been reported by at least 2 miners in the ‘30’s in the province of Limpopo and more than 75,000 mines have been reported by geological companies in Mpumalanga. It seems that gold mining has been going on here for a lot longer than most of us ever imagined.

Ann Kritzinger, a geologist from University of Zimbabwe has shown in several papers that many of the ruins in Zimbabwe were most likely for the purpose of extracting and purifying gold – and were not slave pits, animal pits or grain pits as is often suggested by ignorant scholars.

The presence of Dravidian gold miners is shown in great detail by Dr Cyril Hromnik in his astonishing book “Indo Africa” 1981 – showing in great detail the exploits of the MaKomati people – Hindu Dravidians – who were here in southern Africa mining gold as far back as 2000 years ago and probably even further back in time.

Sumeria and Abantu

The links to the Sumerian civilisation in southern Africa simply cannot be ignored or erased. They can even be traced with etymology in the names and origins of indigenous people. The most obvious evidence are the mysterious origins of the word “Abantu”, the name commonly used to describe black South Africans. According to Credo Mutwa, the name is derived from the Sumerian goddess Antu. “Abantu” simply means the children or people of Antu.

Energy Generation – Ancient knowledge

Extensive electronic measurements in 2011 have shown that the circular stone ruins are in fact energy generating devices, using the natural sound that emanates from the surface of the Earth, creating electromagnetic fields as a result of the sound amplification. The shape of the circular ruins are all very specific and unique because each circle represents the cymatic pattern of the sound energy as it appears on the surface of the earth at that point. This energy was amplified by a simple understanding of harmonics and utilised in the same way that we generate LASER and SASER beam technology today. Giant magnetron-shaped structures suggest that this was well understood by the ancients. I have measured these spectacular energies and electromagnetic waves and therefore do not hesitate to make these claims. Some of the sound frequencies go into the extremely high Giga hertz levels (over 380 Giga hertz) which are unheard of on Earth today in any normal application.

The fact that these circles are all connected by the stone channels makes it very clear to any scientist who works with electricity or energy that the stone circle complex is a giant energy generating grid that was most likely used in the mining and processing of gold on a scale unimaginable to us today.

Dating of The Ruins And Artefacts

This is a critical aspect of my research and there are several methods that I have had to resort to because we cannot use carbon dating to establish the age of stone. Neither can we assume that pottery or other artefacts found in the ruins were left behind by the architects. The many tools and artefacts that I have collected for my small museum in Waterval Boven are very unique and very mysterious – all made out of stone. They all seem to display strong acoustic properties and I call them “stones that ring like bells”. This was the realisation that led me to discover that sound played a critical role in the building of the ruins and the use of the energies that they create. One of the most obvious techniques I use in determining the possible age of the tools, is the patina growth that forms on the rock. The kind of patina or skin that grows on these artefacts, grows at a very slow rate that is estimated to be about one thousand years per microscopic layer. In other words, by the time that the patina is visible to the naked eye, it is already a few thousand years old. Most of the artefacts in my collection are completely covered in patina several millimetres thick, suggesting that these ancient tools must be well over 100,000 years old or even substantially older.

In conclusion, we are standing at the threshold of a brand new discovery that will expose great surprises and unveil a great hidden part of human history. My  book UBUNTU Contributionism – A Blueprint For Human Prosperity was released in September 2013 and I am completing the follow up to African Temples of The Anunnaki that will contain all the latest discoveries and conclusions I have reached regarding the vanished civilisations of southern Africa to date.

calendar site
An aerial view of the calendar site perched on the edge of the Transvaal escarpment consisting of black reef quartzite. The tree on the right is the north marker – the tree on the left marks south. All the monoliths that make up the circular calendar structure are dolerite. We do not know where the dolerite comes from. Note the sculptured pointed monolith closest to the edge. This is one of the 3 fallen monoliths that aligns with the rise of Orion’s belt.
calendar stone
Johan Heine shows us the shadow that moves from left to right of the calendar stone, allowing us to mark the days of the year, from the summer solstice on the left edge, to the winter solstice on the right edge.
Adam's Calendar
A close-up view of the Adam’s Calendar, showing that the north-south line dissects the two central calendar stones. The tree in the centre is where the north marker stone is located.
Adam's Calendar
This monolith at Adam’s Calendar was removed from its original position in 1994 where it stood looking at the sunrise on the equinox over the large central monoliths. It now serves as a plaque stand at the entrance to the nature reserve.
calendar site
Although it is badly eroded, the original circular form of the calendar site can still be seen on this satellite image, with the 2 main monoliths at its centre. The north-south deviation can also be immediately seen as the north marker slants slightly to the left of 12 o’clock. It was measure do be 3 degrees, 17 minutes and 43 sec.
mysterious ancient stone ruins
One of the many mysterious ancient stone ruins that seems to have a greater purpose in its design. The Phi factor of 1,618 seems to be well used in this and other structures’ dimensions.
ancient energy grid
A small section of the ancient energy grid that stretches more than 450,000 km square linked by the ancient channels that can be clearly seen from the air. This kind detail is not at all visible to observers on the ground.
Ancient terraces
Ancient terraces surround large complex structures and cover more than 450,000 km square.

For more information about my research and presentations please see my website

www.michaeltellinger.com


Biography

Michael Tellinger is a scientist, researcher, and regular guest on more than 200 radio shows in the United States, United Kingdom, and Europe, such as Coast to Coast AM with George Noory and the Shirley Maclaine Show. In March 2011 he hosted the Megalithomania Conference in Johannesburg, South Africa, featuring Graham Hancock, Andrew Collins, and Robert Temple. He lives in South Africa.

www.michaeltellinger.com

www.slavespecies.com

Youtube Videos with Michael Tellinger




Ancient Arabic Book of Astrology and Magic dating back to the 10th or 11th century.

Image of opened magic book with magic lights

Imagine a real book of magical recipes and spells just like we dreamt of as children reading fairy tales?

The Picatrix is that book.

Dating back to the 10th or 11the century, it is an ancient Arabian book of astrology and occult magic. The Picatrix is filled with spells and cryptic astrological descriptions for almost any wish and has been translated and used by many cultures over the centuries.

Originally written in arabic, it was called Ghāyat al-Ḥakīm, which translates to “The Goal or Aim of the Sage“.

It was then translated to Spanish and to latin in 1256 for the Castilian king Alfonso.

That’s when it took on the known title Picatrix. Researcher David Pingree calls it “the most thorough exposition of celestial magic in Arabic” and describes the Picatrix as “Arabic texts on Hermeticism, Sabianism, Ismailism, astrology, alchemy and magic produced in the Near East in the ninth and tenth centuries A.D.”

The four books, which contain different chapters, are as follows:

  • Book I – “Of the heavens and the effects they cause through images made under them”
  • Book II – “Of the figures of the heavens in general, and of the general motion of the sphere, and of their effects in this world”
  • Book III – “Of the properties of the planets and signs, and of their figures and forms made in their colors, and how one may speak with the spirits of the planets, and of many other magical workings”
  • Book IV – “Of the properties of spirits, and of those things that are necessary to observe in this most excellent art, and how they may be summoned with images and other things”

The chapters then are divided amongst magic and its properties, the works of the planets, sun, and moon, the order of natural things, stones appropriate for each planet, figures, colors, garments, and incenses of the planets, confections of the spirits of the planets, and of averting harmful workings, and magic of miraculous effect, and the foods, incense, unguents, and perfumes that ought to be used to work by the spirits of the seven planets, how the vigor of the spirit of the Moon is drawn into things here below, and how incenses of the stars ought to be made, and certain compounds needed in this science.

old skull on old book and copper cauldron

What are in these magical recipes?

Well, they are regarded as obscene. The gross concoctions for various outcomes like “generating enmity” are meant to alter states of consciousness, and can even lead to out-of-body experiences or even death. Here’s what some of the ingredients include: blood, bodily excretions, brain matter mixed with copious amounts of hashish, opium, and psychoactive plants.

But they aren’t all so gruesome.

The Picatrix also heavily focuses on astrology, and viewing the future with the intention of controlling or improving it. There are dozens of spells to bring about desires and outcomes, which involve taking certain steps that consider the positions of cosmology. For instance, the spell to place love between two people is:

“Fashion two images with the 1st face of Cancer rising, and Venus therein, and the Moon in the 1st face of Taurus in the eleventh house. And when you have made these images, join each to the other face to face and bury them in the house of the other . And they will care for each other and have an enduring love between them.” (The Picatrix Book I, Chapter 5)

Other examples of spells include finding lost treasure, increasing crops, health, wealth and friendship.

However, historians note that some may have been lost in translation.

One researcher, Martin Plessner says, “neither the Arabic psychology of study nor the Hebrew definition of the experiment is rendered in the Latin Picatrix. The Latin translator omits many theoretical passages throughout the work.”

Either way, this ancient document is fascinating. It marks and represents many themes that have evolved throughout human history. As mysterious as it all may be, this may give us some clues to astrological phenomena and “black” magic.
References:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Picatrix

Researchers Discover Ancient Elixir For Modern Deadly Bacteria

mrsa1

At the University of Nottingham in Britain, researchers have rediscovered an ancient medicinal elixir that appears to fight a very modern scourge: a deadly drug-resistant bacterial infection rampant in hospitals.

The discovery melds medieval potion-making with modern pharmacology. In its crosshairs: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, better known as MRSA.

Let’s imagine that during a nighttime escape through Sherwood Forest, an early archetype for the legendary figure Robin Hood scratched his cornea on a branch and developed an eye infection. In nearby Nottingham, he might well have consulted an herbalist, who would fetch a brass vessel, brew a remedy of bile from a cow’s stomach and Allium — a plant from the garlic family — and create an unguent to treat the patient’s inflamed eye.

Until recently, the recipe for that medieval remedy lay unnoticed in the brittle pages of a 1,000-year-old text — titled “Bald’s Leechbook” — shelved in the library of the University of Nottingham’s Institute for Medieval Research.

Leafing through that folio, Viking studies professor Christina Lee wondered what its ancient recipes revealed about the state of medieval medical knowledge, and whether and how, a millennium before the germ theory of disease was understood, healers and herbalists had guessed right in choosing their treatments.

Lee translated the recipe for the eye salve from the original Old English recipe in “Bald’s Leechbook,” and enlisted chemists at her university’s Center for Biomolecular Sciences to recreate the unguent and test its effect.

Lee’s request came at a crucial time. With a paucity of new antimicrobial medications in the development pipeline, Nottingham microbiologist Freya Harrison was looking for inspiration. Lee’s idea might allow her team to reach deep into the past in search of undiscovered or underappreciated antimicrobial agents.

Scientists in Harrison’s lab followed the recipe precisely, making four separate batches with fresh ingredients each time. They also devised a control treatment using the same quantity of distilled water and brass sheet to mimic the brewing container, but leaving the vegetable compounds out.

In lab conditions that set off riotous growth of the Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, the 1,000-year-old recipe had a powerful killing effect: roughly 1 in 1,000 bacterial cells growing in plugs of collagen survived when doused with the ancient salve.

Later, in infected wounds induced in mice, the remedy killed 90 percent of MRSA bacteria.

Harrison says she was “absolutely blown away” with the antique recipe’s effects. She had assumed it might show “a small amount of antibiotic activity.” Researchers have found some of its elements — copper and bile salts in particular — to have some effect on bacteria in the lab. And plants in the garlic family are known to make chemicals that interfere with bacteria’s ability to damage infected tissues.

But compared with the control substance, there was something powerful about the combination of these elements in this ancient formulation, Harrison said. The eye salve had the power even to breach the sticky coating and the dense clustering of mature colonies of bacteria, which are notorious resistant to antibacterial treatments.

When Harrison’s lab diluted the salve to see whether it would continue to work, they perceived what they believe is the medication’s mechanism of action: Even when the diluted salve failed to kill S. aureus, it interfered with communication among cells in the bacterial colony — a key finding because those signals switch on genes that allow bacteria to damage infected tissues. Blocking this signaling is seen as a promising way to treat infection.

We know that MRSA-infected wounds are exceptionally difficult to treat in people and in mouse models,” said Kendra Rumbaugh, who performed the testing of Bald’s remedy on MRSA-infected skin wounds in mice. “We have not tested a single antibiotic or experimental therapeutic that is completely effective,” added Rumbaugh, a professor of surgery at Texas Tech University’s School of Medicine. But she said the ancient remedy was at least as effective — “if not better than the conventional antibiotics we used.”

The collaboration between Old English remedies and microbiology has given rise to a program called AncientBiotics at Nottingham, where researchers will seek funding to extend research combining the ancient arts and modern sciences.

Melissa Healy is a health and science reporter with the Los Angeles Times writing from the Washington, D.C., area.*

 

Source:  Written by Melissa Healy of the Los Angeles Times and first appeared in The Union Bulletin.

THE LOST CYCLE OF TIME (Part2)

A deeper look into the mythological & astronomical evidence that suggests mankind’s history is cyclical instead of linear – and what this means for our future.
walter-cruttenden

Click here to read part 1 of this 2-part series.

An ancient look at our future

The evidence for mankind’s cyclical history spans across time and space, manifesting itself in a variety of cultures through the ages.

The Greek historian Hesiod spoke of the wonderful nature of the last golden age, when “peace and plenty” abounded, and Hopi myths tell us of cities at the bottom of the sea. Ancient peoples typically broke the great cycle into an ascending and descending phase, each with four periods.

According to Vedic scriptures, when the autumnal equinox moves from Virgo to Aries, humanity moves through the ascending Kali, Dwapara, Treta, and Satya yugas, or eons, before slowly declining in reverse order as the equinox completes its journey (the Satya Yuga marks a golden era).

As stated, the Greeks and other early Mediterranean civilizations described similar periods and labeled them the Iron, Bronze, Silver, and Golden ages. The ancient Maya and Hopi used names such as “worlds” and “suns” and numbered them to identify specific epochs.

Whatever language is used, the concept is the same. In his book, The Holy Science (1894), Sri Yukteswar explains that when our solar system is at a point farthest from its companion star, humanity’s consciousness is at its lowest point (which last occurred around 500 AD), and when the sun is at its closest point (which next occurs in 12,500 AD), consciousness reaches its highest point in this cycle. These celestial points are located at the intersection of the autumnal equinox sun and one of the zodiac’s twelve constellations – the celestial clock.

When the AE sun is in Aries, which is almost always placed in the twelve o’clock position of the zodiac, the Earth is in the best possible stellar environment, making it easy for many people to experience an awakened state of consciousness. When the AE sun is in the constellation Libra, conditions are at their worst, and a dark age, a period of deluded consciousness, prevails.

Please note that I am not saying the stars or constellations cause the changes, or giving any credence to horoscope astrology.

Rather I am pointing out that we can tell where we are in the Great Year by using the stars as a celestial clock. In fact we can do the same with the seasons. When Orion is high in the evening sky we know it is winter. Orion does not cause winter but if we just woke from a coma we could look at the sky, and with just a bit of knowledge, determine exactly where we are in the calendar.

Presently, we are just a few hundred years into the ascending age, crossing over from what the Greeks would call the Age of Man (Iron) to the Age of the Hero (Bronze) – yet still very far from the Age of the Demigods (Silver) and the Age of the Gods (Gold), which are utterly inconceivable to us at this time.

The two equinoxes act as markers on the face of the celestial clock. The ancients used the autumnal equinox (AE) as the hour hand of the ages, with 500 AD as the low point. The renaissance represents the awakening from the Kali Yuga (Iron Age) to the Dwapara Yuga (Bronze Age). That process is now quickening at an exponential rate, akin to the Sun casting more light as it rises above the horizon.

According to Eastern teachings it means we are now awakening from a time when individual consciousness perceived itself as purely a physical form, living in a strictly physical universe, to a time when we begin to see ourselves and the universe as more transparent and mostly made up of subtle energy.

This began with the discoveries of the Renaissance (principles of electricity, laws of gravitation, microscopes, telescopes, and other inventions that expanded our awareness) and has accelerated since with the emergence of quantum physics, which shows us that matter and energy, are interchangeable and proves Einstein’s concepts that even time and space are relative. In short, we are back on the upswing, just beginning to “remember” ourselves as pure consciousness living in a world of undreamed of possibilities.

According to Paramahansa Yogananda, author of Autobiography of a Yogi, by the year 4100 AD (when we cross into the Treta Yuga proper, a.k.a. the silver age), “telepathy and clairvoyance will once again be common knowledge.” It may seem far-fetched, but according to myth and folklore, there was such a time on Earth before, in about 3100 BC, the last Treta Yuga. Some pre-Dark Age stories, such as Genesis, would designate the Treta Yuga the pre-Babel age, when mankind communed freely with nature before God “confused the tongues.”

People often forget what the world was like just five or six hundred years ago, when every nation was at war, plagues and poverty decimated large populations, lifespans were half what they are today, individual rights were nonexistent, and justice was doled out through torture, inquisition, or burning at the stake.

Yes, the world still has problems, but consciousness and awareness are expanding rapidly, manifesting in many ways…

In the U.S. alone, millions of people are meditating, doing yoga, and using “nontraditional” healing practices to maintain their well being. And from the perspective of technology, many believe we are now approaching the “point of singularity” Ray Kurzweil explored in his book The Singularity Is Near – an acceleration of intelligence which will blur the distinction between man and machine. But it is so much more.

Can there be any doubt that improvements across all areas of society over the next five hundred years will be off the charts compared to those of the last five hundred?

Some advocates and astronomers use the vernal equinox (VE), which is now in Pisces at the “dawning of the age of Aquarius,” to tell precessional time. Thus, there is a kernel of truth in the popular 1960s song “Aquarius.” Other cultures used the solstices, which would be a line drawn perpendicular to that of the equinoxes.

Presently, the winter solstice intersects the Galactic Center in Sagittarius. Because this happens in the precessional cycle within just a decade on either side of 2012 (the Mayan calendar end date), Mesoamerican scholar John Major Jenkins believes this culture used it to delineate a “new time,” such as a quickening or spring in a Great Year.

Whatever solar marker is used (equinox or solstice), the celestial clock is a simple way to tell time within a Great Year, and right now all hands point to a brightening of consciousness. The importance of the precessional clock can be seen in the system of time we use to this day: 24 hours in a day, with 12 hours of ascending light, a.m., and 12 hours of descending light, p.m. It is a perfect microcosm of a Great Year, with its 24,000 years, 12,000 ascending and 12,000 descending.

Do we know our real place in cosmic history?

A deeper message than telling time in a Great Year is recognizing that there is a grand cycle to life that affects us all. Having lost this knowledge, we are a society that has lost an understanding of its place in cosmic history. Like an individual with amnesia, we forgot our past and therefore harbor a deep angst about the future.

But when we remember our rich and beautiful history, we rediscover our incredible potential and begin to see and act with clarity. The current time is akin to the last days of winter – things are thawing out. Personally, I am very optimistic about the future. Of course, all the flowers do not bloom on spring’s first day; nonetheless, understanding our place in the Great Year assures us that it could soon be brighter and more beautiful than we have dared to imagine. Our ancestors tell us so.

Could our sun be part of a binary system?

The waxing and waning of the ages in this article is based largely on the idea that our sun is part of a binary star system (two stars gravitationally bound). Fifty years ago the idea was unheard of but astronomers today now know that the majority of stars are part of binary or multiple star system. Some recent studies that include brown dwarfs, suggest that as many as 80% of all stars have one or more partners. So it is not inconceivable that our sun has a partner and that is the scenario that more and more astrophysicists are using to explain strange celestial phenomena:

  • Richard Muller at UC Berkeley has suggested an unseen partner star might be responsible for an increase of comet activity from time to time as the partner dislodges comets out of the Ort Cloud.
  • Drs. Whitmire and Matesse with the University of Louisiana believe a companion star may be responsible for carving the unusually sheer edge of the Kuiper Belt.
  • Mike Brown, an astrophysicist at Caltech, famed for dethroning Pluto as the ninth planet (because he found many similar sized objects) says that a large unknown planet or companion star may be the only way to explain the bizarre shape of Sedna’s orbit.
  • And I personally find that the precession observable (stars moving across sky at 50” per year) is more accurately explained with a moving solar system model, versus the problem-riddled lunisolar theory of precession.

A companion star might also be the reason for the apparent loss of the sun’s angular momentum relative to the planets, a phenomenon that has baffled scientists for years. And it might explain the anomalous acceleration of many spacecraft in unbounded orbits, the Milankovitch cycles, the increasing delta between the length of a tropical and sidereal year and many other solar system oddities.

The fact is most of our solar system science today is still based on the Copernican heliocentric system that requires the sun to be static, without motion. When we unleash the sun from this old idea we may start seeing our world, the universe, and even our past and future with a newfound sense of clarity.*

 

Written By Walter Cruttenden, award winning filmmaker, Author & Director of the Binary Research Institute, California.

 

The Lost Cycle of Time

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Ancient cultures around the world spoke of a vast cycle of time with alternating Dark and Golden Ages; Plato called it the Great Year. Most of us were taught that this cycle was just a myth, a fairytale, if we were taught anything about it all. But according to Giorgio de Santillana, former professor of the history of science at MIT, many ancient cultures believed consciousness and history were not linear but cyclical, rising and falling over long periods of time. In their landmark work, Hamlet’s Mill, de Santillana and coauthor Hertha von Dechend, show that the myth and folklore of more than thirty ancient cultures speak of a cycle of time with long periods of enlightenment broken by dark ages of ignorance, indirectly driven by a known astronomical phenomena, the precession of the equinox. This is where it gets interesting.

We all know the two celestial motions that have a profound effect on life and consciousness. Diurnal motion, Earth’s rotation on its axis, causes humans to move from a waking state to a sleep state and back again every twenty-four hours. Our bodies have adapted to Earth’s rotation so well that it produces these regular changes in consciousness without our even thinking the process remarkable. Earth’s revolution around the sun —the second celestial motion, which Copernicus identified — has an equally significant effect, prompting trillions of life forms to spring out of the ground, to bloom, fruit, and then decay, while billions of other species hibernate, spawn, or migrate en masse. Our visible world literally springs to life, completely changes its color and stride, and then reverses with every waxing and waning of the second celestial motion.

The third celestial motion, the precession of the equinox, is less understood than the first two, but if we are to believe ancient cultures from around the world, its effect is equally transformative. What disguises the impact of this motion is its timescale. Like the mayfly, which lives but one day a year and knows nothing of the seasons, the human being has an average life span that comprises only one-360th of the roughly 24,000-year precessional cycle. And just as the mayfly born on an overcast, windless day has no idea that there is anything as splendid as sunshine or a breeze, so do we, born in an era of materialistic rationality, have little awareness of a golden age or higher states of consciousness – though that is the ancestral message.

Giorgio de Santillana, former professor of the history of science at MIT, many ancient cultures believed consciousness and history were not linear but cyclical, rising and falling over long periods of time. In their landmark work, Hamlet’s Mill, de Santillana and coauthor Hertha von Dechend show that the myth and folklore of more than thirty ancient cultures spoke of a vast cycle of time encompassing alternating dark and golden ages moving with the precession of the equinox. Plato called this vast cycle the Great Year.

As Giorgio and Hertha point out, the idea of a great cycle linked to the slow precession of the equinox was common to numerous cultures before the Christian era, but today we are taught nothing of the cycle or told it is just a fairytale, there was no “golden age.” An increasing body of new astronomical and archaeological evidence, however, suggests that this cycle may have a basis in fact. More importantly, understanding the cycle and the character of each epoch or season provides insight into civilization’s direction. So far the Ancients are right on; consciousness does seem to be expanding since the depths of the dark ages, reflected as vast improvements throughout society. So what drives these changes and what can we expect in the future? Understanding the cause of precession is key.

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Precession Observed

The observation of Earth’s three motions is quite simple. In the first, rotation, we see the sun rise in the east and set in the west every twenty-four hours. And if we were to look at the stars just once a day, we would see a similar pattern over a year: the stars rise in the east and set in the west. The twelve constellations of the zodiac — the ancient markers of time that lie along the ecliptic, the sun’s path — pass overhead at the rate of about one per month and return to the starting point of our celestial observation at the end of the year. And if we looked just once a year, say on the autumnal equinox, we would notice the stars move retrograde (opposite to the first two motions) at the rate of about one degree every seventy years. At this pace, the equinox falls on a different constellation approximately once every 2,000 years, taking about 24,000 years to complete its cycle through the twelve constellations. This is called the precession (the backward motion) of the equinox relative to the fixed stars.

The standard theory of precession says it is principally the Moon’s gravity acting upon the oblate Earth that must be the cause of Earth’s changing orientation to inertial space, a.k.a. “precession.” However, this theory was developed before astronomers learned the solar system could move and has now been found by the International Astronomical Union to be “inconsistent with dynamical theory.” Ancient oriental astronomy teaches that an equinox slowly moving or “precessing” through the zodiac’s twelve constellations is simply due to the motion of the sun curving through space around another star, which changes our viewpoint of the stars from Earth. At the Binary Research Institute, we have modeled a moving solar system and found it does indeed better produce the precession observable, while resolving a number of solar system anomalies. This strongly suggests the ancient explanation may be the most plausible, even though astronomers have not yet discovered a companion star to Earth’s Sun.

Beyond the technical considerations, a moving solar system appears to provide a logical reason why we might have a Great Year, to use Plato’s term, with alternating dark and golden ages. That is, if the solar system carrying the Earth actually moves in a huge orbit, subjecting Earth to the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum of another star or EM source along the way, and shaping the subtle electrical and magnetic fields through which we move, we could expect this to affect our magnetosphere, ionosphere, and very likely all life in a pattern commensurate with that orbit. Just as Earth’s smaller diurnal and annual motions produce the cycles of day and night and the seasons of the year (both due to Earth’s changing position in relation to the EM spectrum of the Sun), so might the larger celestial motion be expected to produce a cycle that affects life and consciousness on a grand scale.

Just recently NASA discovered (March 2014) NASA that the earth’s rotation and motion through space rearranges the electrons in the radiation belt into a zebra pattern! This was entirely unexpected as it was believed these particles are moving too swiftly to be affected by the earth’s motion.

A hypothesis then for how consciousness might be affected by such a celestial cycle can be built on the work of Dr. Valerie Hunt, a former professor of physiology at UCLA. In a number of studies, she has found that changes in the ambient subtle electrical, EM and magnetic fields (which surrounds us all the time) can dramatically affect human cognition and performance. In short, consciousness appears to be affected by subtle fields of light, or as quantum physicist Dr. Amit Goswami might say, “Consciousness prefers light.” Consistent with myth and folklore, the concept behind the Great Year or cyclical model of history is based on the Sun’s motion through space, subjecting Earth to waxing and waning stellar fields (all stars are huge generators of EM spectra) and resulting in the legendary rise and fall of the ages over great epochs of time.

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A Historical Perspective

Current theories of history generally ignore myth and folklore and do not consider any macro external influences on consciousness. For the most part, modern history theory teaches that consciousness (or history) moves in a linear pattern from the primitive to the modern, with few exceptions, and it includes the following tenets:

  • Mankind evolved out of Africa
  • People were hunter-gatherers until about 5,000 years ago
  • Tribes first banded together for protection from other warring parties
  • Written communication preceded large engineered structures or populous civilizations

The problem with this widely accepted paradigm is that it is not consistent with the evolving interpretation of recently discovered ancient cultures and anomalous artifacts. In the last hundred years, major discoveries have been made in Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, South America, Turkey and many other regions that break the rules of history theory and push back the time of advanced human development. Specifically, they show that ancient peoples were, in many ways, far more proficient and civilized nearly five thousand years ago than they were during the more recent dark ages of just six hundred to a thousand years ago. In Caral, an ancient complex of unknown origin on the west coast of Peru, we find six pyramids that are carbon dated to 2700 BC, a date contemporaneous with Egyptian pyramids and that rivals the time of the first major structures found in the so-called Cradle of Civilization in Mesopotamia. Caral is an ocean away from the Cradle. We find no evidence of writing or weaponry, two of the so-called necessities of civilization, but we do find beautiful musical instruments, astronomically aligned structures, and evidence of commerce with distant lands (fabrics, seeds and shells not indigenous to the area)— all signs of a peaceful and prosperous culture.

Gobekli Tepe presents an even greater challenge to conventional accounts of history. Dated to at least 9000 BC, this site in Turkey contains dramatic architecture, including carved pillars of huge proportions. To find that something so large and complex existed long before the dates accepted for the invention of agriculture and pottery is an archaeological enigma. These sites defy the standard historical paradigm. And what is stranger still is that so many of these civilizations seemed to decline en masse. In ancient Mesopotamia, Pakistan, Jiroft, and adjacent lands, we find knowledge of astronomy, geometry, advanced building techniques, sophisticated plumbing and water systems, incredible art, dyes and fabrics, surgery, medicine, and many other refinements of a civilized culture which seem to have emerged from nowhere and were completely lost over the next few thousand years.

By the time of the worldwide dark ages, every one of these civilizations, including the big ones in Egypt and the Indus Valley, had largely turned to dust or nomadic ways of life. Near the depths of the cyclic downturn, there were ruins and little else, while the local populace knew nothing of the builders except through legend. In some areas where larger populations still remained, such as parts of Europe, poverty, plague, and disease were often rampant, and the ability to read, write, or duplicate any of the earlier engineering or scientific feats had essentially disappeared. What happened?

While records of this period remain spotty, the archeological evidence indicates that consciousness, reflected as human ingenuity and capability, was greatly diminished. Humanity seemed to have lost the ability to do the things it used to do. Interestingly, this is just what many ancient cultures predicted. Stefan Maul, the world’s foremost Assyrianologist, shed light on this phenomenon in his 1997 Stanford Presidential Lectures series. He tells us that the Akkadians knew they lived in a declining era. They revered the past as a higher time and tried to hang on to it, but at the same time, they predicted and lamented the dark ages that would follow. His etymological studies of cuneiform tablets show the ancient words for “past” have now become our words for “future” and the ancient words for “future” have become our words for “past.” It is almost as if humanity orients its motion through time depending on whether it is going toward or away from a golden age.

This principle of waxing and waning epochs is depicted in numerous bas-reliefs found in ancient Mithraic “mystery school” temples. The famed Tauroctany, or bull-slaying scene, is usually surrounded by two boys, Cautes and Cautopetes. One holds a torch up on the ascending side of the zodiac, indicating a time of increasing light, and the other holds a torch down on the descending side of the zodiac, indicating a time of darkness. As the chart below shows, these time periods correspond with the Greeks’ “iron, bronze, silver and golden ages,” a simple way to describe the Great Year epochs.

Jarred Diamond, well-known historian-anthropologist and author of Guns, Germs and Steel, makes a good case that it is primarily local geographic and environmental advantages that determine which group of humans succeeds or fails versus another. Those that have the steel, guns, and bad germs win. Although this helps to explain many regional differences of the last few thousand years, it does not address the macro trends that seem to have affected all cultures, including China and the Americas, as they collectively slipped into the last worldwide dark age. The cyclical Great Year model overlays and augments Diamond’s observations with a reason for the widespread downturn. It implies that it is not only the geography and environment on Earth that determines a people’s relative success but also the geography and environment of Earth in space that affects humanity on a macroscopic scale. Just as small celestial motions dramatically affect life over the short term, so it appears that large celestial motions color life over the long term, resulting in the seasons of a Great Year.

Understanding that consciousness may indeed rise and fall with the motions of the heavens gives meaning to ancient myth and folklore and puts anomalous cultures and artifacts, such as the Antikythera device and the Babylon battery, into a historical context that makes sense. For example, the battery was developed at least 2000 years ago, lost in the dark ages, then reinvented by Volta in the post renaissance period. The same thing goes for prosthetic devices, brain surgery, knowledge of a heliocentric system and engineering, etc. etc. They were discovered lost, then rediscovered. It also speaks to why so many ancient cultures appear to have been fascinated with the stars and provides us with a workable paradigm in which to understand history. It could also help us identify the forces that propelled the Renaissance and that may be accelerating consciousness in our current era. Myth and folklore, the scientific language of yore, provide a deeper look at consciousness throughout the ages.*

Author’s Biography

By Walter Cruttenden –  Director of the Binary Research Institute, an archaeoastronomy think tank in California. He is the author of Lost Star of Myth and Time, The Great Year Adventures-with Tommy the Time-Traveling Turtle, and the award winning documentary, The Great Year, narrated by James Earl Jones. Cruttenden’s work studies the astronomy of ancient cultures, their almost universal belief in a cycle of time with alternating Dark and Golden Ages, and what this means for humanity today. For income he invents new ways to help people save and invest, and presently serves as founder CEO of Acorns.

 

 

An Invisible Grid Stretches Across Our Planet. What It Does Will Amaze You!

By: Adil Amarsi and Dawn Delvecchio

Ley Lines 1 - World View

Is there an invisible “Energy Grid” surrounding the planet? A grid which may hold the secret to obtaining power that can be used for good … or evil?

Nikola Tesla once said: “If you want to find the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration.

Today we know that Tesla was right. Quantum physics has demonstrated that all matter, at its sub-atomic core, is actually energy. This includes both sentient life, inanimate objects and the particles of space. Matter is, in fact, more energy than it is “stuff”.

In its (seemingly) solid form, matter also emits energy, as countless studies have shown. And when it comes to matter which emits energy, none may be more important for us to understand than that of an energetic grid. A grid, many argue, which surrounds the Earth.

Why is this important? Because if the Earth emits energy along specific lines and cross-point which can be harnessed by humans, those aware of this power are at a distinct advantage over those who remain ignorant.

More than Meets the Eye

As with many “unsolved mysteries”, the notion of a grid which surrounds the Earth has polarized theorists and experts into two distinct camps: Proponents and Dismissers. While proponents argue that ample evidence exists to prove an energetic grid’s existence, dismissers categorize the theory as another fringe element popular with Conspiracy Theorists.

But even if mainstream thinkers dismiss the very existence of a grid, a closer examination indicates there could be much more here than meets the eye.

“Ley” Lines and Pre-Historic Power Centers

The lines which comprise this grid (in theory or in fact) are often referred to as “Ley Lines,” and when we study them closely, we see that humans throughout recorded history appear to have been well aware of their existence, thanks to the many ancient sites found along them.

The term “Ley” itself comes from the Anglo-Saxon, meaning ‘cleared strips of ground’ or ‘meadows’. But these lines we are referring to are primarily energetic, and exist whether the land is stripped of its ground cover or not.

All Ley Lines meet at intersecting points, forming a matrix or grid across the body of the planet. These grid points, according to proponents, are the strongest “power spots” on Earth. Apparently many of our ancestors thought so too, since sacred sites such as henges, mounds, megaliths, pyramids, famous energy vortexes, and even cathedrals are frequently located directly atop these cross-hair power spots.

In fact, mapping the grid shows us that many of the world’s most renowned sites sit atop Ley Line meeting points. Machu Picchu, the Pyramids of Giza, Easter Island, Puma Punku, Lhasa Tibet, the ancient ruins of Mohenjo Daro, Findhorn in Scotland, the Bermuda Triangle, the Arizona vortices, Angkor Wat, the Nazca Lines, numerous obelisks, and sacred domed structures around the globe all attest to the very real possibility that something beyond the visible world is involved here.

Exactly how our ancestors knew about these lines may forever remain a mystery, but what we can deduce today from our own knowledge, reveals information that can powerfully aid the planet – or deeply harm it – during these all too critical times.

Pseudoscience or Solid Platonic Fact?

According to mainstream thinking, the study of a planetary grid is considered a “pseudoscience.” However, when we look to the precise mathematics connected with this grid, then refer to the patterns and themes reflected in Sacred Geometry, a meaning beyond materialist scientific thought begins to emerge.

Plato acknowledged grids and formulated a theory of the Earth which states that the base structure of the planet evolved geometrically: from the most simple shapes to increasingly complex ones.

It’s no surprise that these shapes are today known as the “Platonic Solids” and include the following: the cube, the tetrahedron, the octahedron, the dodecahedron, and the icosahedron.

According to Plato’s theory, these energy grids around the Earth evolved through each of the shapes over time, with the more complex superimposed over its predecessor. The result is an all encompassing field which forms the energetic basis of Earth. An energy, according to Plato, which literally holds the Earth together.

Early Ley Line Identification

In 1921, Alfred Watkins, an English pioneer of photography had something he called a “Flood of Ancestral Memory” while looking at a map of the Herefordshire countryside.

Watkins noticed that numerous prehistoric places, such as standing stones, earthen burial mounds, prehistoric earthen hills, and other features fell into straight lines which stretched for miles across the country. Watkins spent many years studying these alignments, both on the ground and on maps.

He took photographs, wrote books and gave lectures. In response to his work, especially to his most important book, The Old Straight Track (1925), a group of people from across Britain formed what they called the “Straight Track Club”. This group conducted field research throughout Britain, looking for alignments of sites, and remnants of old straight tracks lying along them.

It wasn’t until the 1960s that Alfred’s research was furthered and modified by others. One of these was Tony Wedd, a former Royal Air Force Pilot. Wedd believed the Lines served an entirely different function. Namely: the “cross-hairs” of line intersections were used as UFO landing sites. Wedd’s hypothesis inspired other investigations, throughout the 1960s and on a global scale, examining the energy output along Ley Lines.

“Bucky Balls” and Vile Vortices

As it turns out, there are several different Ley Line grid maps. The variety can be attributed to different researchers throughout the 20th century. All of them, however, draw their conclusions from the fundamental geometries of the Platonic solids.

Bill Becker and Bethe Hagens, for example, have conducted extensive research on Ley Lines. Their review of the code of the Platonic Solids’ Earthly positions was based on the work of Ivan P. Sanderson. Sanderson was the first to argue that the icosahedron form was evident and at work across the planet.

Sanderson identified what he called “Vile Vortices” distributed geometrically at 12 key locations across the globe. All of these sites shared similar, mostly negative, qualities. Most famous among them are the Bermuda Triangle and the Devil’s Sea.

Becker and Hagens supported, for the most part, the planetary grid map as initially outlined by the Russian team Goncharov, Morozov and Makarov. The Team organized the grid differently than Sanderson, basing it instead on the relationship between the Great Pyramid at Giza, and the north and south axial poles.

However, Becker and Hagens believed the Russian version was incomplete. This led them to theorize and map out a new, more complex variation of an Earth grid, based on R. Buckminster Fuller’s icosahedral-based, spherical polyhedron.

Official Dismissal of Ley Lines

Even though experts like Dan Shaw, Nassim Haramein, Becker and Hagens, Sanderson and the Russians have all conducted research on Ley Lines, mainstream science does not formally acknowledge their existence or influence.

Could this be due to a more hidden agenda? One seeking to keep such knowledge from the public?

Since research into such arenas is unsupported by mainstream funding, it will be difficult to determine the full potential of Ley Lines. If indeed there are subtle energies along the Earth’s Ley Line grid, what possible ways might a conscious humanity harness this power for the greater good? Until support and research funding become available, we may never know.*

 

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Bacteria Discovered Inside 1000-Year-Old Incan Mummies Is Resistant To Modern Antibiotics

Ancient Bacteria

Scientists have discovered a gut bacteria inside 1,000-year-old Incan mummies. The bacteria is resistant to modern antibiotics even though the drugs were discovered within the last 100 years.

This surprising discovery was made when scientists examined the DNA within the guts of three Incan mummies dating back to between the 10th and 14th centuries and six mummified people from Italy, from between the 15th and 18th centuries.
According to Tasha Santiago-Rodriguez of California Polytechnic State University in San Louis Opisbo and her team that conducted the study this ancient bacteria is resistant to almost all modern antibiotics, including penicillin, vancomycin and tetracycline.
These ancient genes were largely in microbes whose resistance is problematic today, including Enteroccocus bacteria that can infect wounds and cause urinary tract infections. But they found that many other species, including some harmless ones, carried some of these resistant genes too.

“When you think about it, almost all these antibiotics are naturally produced, so it makes sense to find antibiotic genes as well,” says Santiago-Rodriguez.
The finding shows that genes that can confer resistance to antibiotics were relatively widespread hundreds of years before Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928.
“It’s ridiculous to think evolution of antibiotic resistance began when penicillin was discovered. It’s been going on for 2 billion years,” said team-member Raul Cano, also at California Polytechnic State University.

 

bacteria-resistant

“This is exciting data. While it is already well known that antibiotic resistance occurred naturally before people started using antibiotics, this study shows that resistance genes were already within the human gut long before we started using these drugs.
It begs the question of what was selecting for these genes at this time? Was it the natural production of antibiotics by other bacteria, or were there other, as yet unknown forces at play?” says Adam Roberts, who studies antibiotic resistance genes at University College London.
According to the scientists, these genes existed long before antibiotics became common, but it is our overuse of these drugs in both people and livestock that caused the superbug resistance to explode worldwide.*

 

Source: MessagetoEagle.com – Orig. Article: Archaeology.com     (07-09-2016)

 

40,000-year-old stone bracelet from Denison Cave is oldest ever found

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Dating back 40,000 years to the Denisovan species of early humans, new pictures show beauty and craftsmanship of prehistoric jewellery.

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<Made of chlorite, the bracelet was found in the same layer as the remains of some of the prehistoric people and is thought to belong to them.  [Credit: Anatoly Derevyanko and Mikhail Shunkov]

It is intricately made with polished green stone and is thought to have adorned a very important woman or child on only special occasions. Yet this is no modern-day fashion accessory and is instead believed to be the oldest stone bracelet in the world, dating to as long ago as 40,000 years.

Unearthed in the Altai region of Siberia in 2008, after detailed analysis Russian experts now accept its remarkable age as correct.

New pictures show this ancient piece of jewellery in its full glory with scientists concluding it was made by our prehistoric human ancestors, the Denisovans, and shows them to have been far more advanced than ever realised.

‘The bracelet is stunning – in bright sunlight it reflects the sun rays, at night by the fire it casts a deep shade of green,’ said Anatoly Derevyanko, Director of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography in Novosibirsk, part of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

‘It is unlikely it was used as an everyday jewellery piece. I believe this beautiful and very fragile bracelet was worn only for some exceptional moments.’

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General reconstruction of the view of the bracelet and comparison with a modern bracelet. [Credit: Anatoly Derevyanko and Mikhail Shunkov]

The bracelet was found inside the famous Denisova Cave, in the Altai Mountains, which is renowned for its palaeontological finds dating back to the Denisovans, who were known as homo altaiensis, an extinct species of humans genetically distinct from Neanderthals and modern humans.

Made of chlorite, the bracelet was found in the same layer as the remains of some of the prehistoric people and is thought to belong to them.

What made the discovery especially striking was that the manufacturing technology is more common to a much later period, such as the Neolithic era. Indeed, it is not clear yet how the Denisovans could have made the bracelet with such skill.

Writing in the Novosibirsk magazine, Science First Hand, Dr Derevyanko said: ‘There were found two fragments of the bracelet of a width of 2.7cm and a thickness of 0.9 cm. The estimated diameter of the find was 7cm. Near one of the cracks was a drilled hole with a diameter of about 0.8 cm. Studying them, scientists found out that the speed of rotation of the drill was rather high, fluctuations minimal, and that was there was applied drilling with an implement – technology that is common for more recent times.

‘The ancient master was skilled in techniques previously considered not characteristic for the Palaeolithic era, such as drilling with an implement, boring tool type rasp, grinding and polishing with a leather and skins of varying degrees of tanning.’

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Traces of the use of drilling with an implement on the bracelet from Denisova Cave
[Credit:: Anatoly Derevyanko and Mikhail Shunkov]

Chlorite was not found in the vicinity of the cave and is thought to have come from a distance of at least 200km, showing how valued the material was at the time.

Dr Derevyanko said the bracelet had suffered damage, including visible scratches and bumps although it looked as if some of the scratches had been sanded down. Experts also believe that the piece of jewellery had other adornments to make it more beautiful.

‘Next to the hole on the outer surface of the bracelet can be seen clearly a limited polished zone of intensive contact with some soft organic material,’ said Dr Derevyanko. ‘Scientists have suggested that it was a leather strap with some charm, and this charm was rather heavy. The location of the polished section made it possible to identify the ‘top’ and ‘bottom’ of the bracelet and to establish that it was worn on the right hand.’

Located next to the Anuy River, about 150 km south of Barnaul, the Denisova Cave is a popular tourist attraction, such is its paleontological importance. Over the years a number of remains have been found there, including some of extinct animals such as the woolly mammoth. In total evidence of 66 different types of mammals have been discovered inside, and 50 bird species.

The most exciting discovery was the remains of the Denisovans, a species of early humans that dated back as early as 600,000 years ago and were different to both Neanderthals and modern man.

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The entrance to the Denisova cave  [Credit: The Siberian Times]

In 2000 a tooth from a young adult was found in the cave and in 2008, when the bracelet was found, archaeologists discovered the finger bone of a juvenile Denisovan hominin, whom they dubbed the ‘X woman’. Further examination of the site found other artifacts dating as far back as 125,000 years.

The institute’s deputy director Mikhail Shunkov suggested that the find indicates the Denisovans – though now extinct – were more advanced than Homo sapiens and Neanderthals.

‘In the same layer, where we found a Denisovan bone, were found interesting things; until then it was believed these the hallmark of the emergence of Homo sapiens,’ he said. ‘First of all, there were symbolic items, such as jewellery – including the stone bracelet as well as a ring, carved out of marble.’

The full details of the ring are yet to be revealed.

‘These finds were made using technological methods – boring stone, drilling with an implement, grinding – that are traditionally considered typical for a later time, and nowhere in the world they were used so early, in the Paleolithic era. At first, we connected the finds with a progressive form of modern human, and now it turned out that this was fundamentally wrong. Obviously it was Denisovans, who left these things.’

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Archaeological excavations inside the cave.  [Credit: The Siberian Times]

This indicated that ‘the most progressive of the triad’ (Homo sapiens, Homo Neanderthals and Denisovans) were Denisovans, who according to their genetic and morphological characters were much more archaic than Neanderthals and modern human.’

But could this modern-looking bracelet have been buried with older remains?

The experts considered this possibility but rejected it, saying they believe the layers were uncontaminated by human interference from a later period. The soil around the bracelet was also dated using oxygen isotopic analysis.

The unique bracelet is now held in the Museum of History and Culture of the Peoples of Siberia and the Far East in Novosibirsk. Irina Salnikova, head the museum, said of the bracelet: ‘I love this find. The skills of its creator were perfect. Initially we thought that it was made by Neanderthals or modern humans, but it turned out that the master was Denisovan, at least in our opinion.

‘All jewellery had a magical meaning for ancient people and even for us, though we do not always notice this. Bracelets and neck adornments were to protect people from evil spirits, for instance. This item, given the complicated technology and ‘imported’ material, obviously belonged to some high ranked person of that society.’

While bracelets have been found pre-dating this discovery, Russian experts say this is the oldest known jewellery of its kind made of stone.

 

Source:  Author: Anna Liesowska |  The Siberian Times    [05-08-2015]

 

Skeleton with stone-encrusted teeth found in Mexico ancient ruins

Skull

Archeologists who found the 1,600-year-old skeleton near Mexico’s ancient Teotihuacan, said the woman was 35-40 when she died with intentionally deformed skull and teeth encrusted with mineral stones (AFP Photo/HO)
Mexico City (AFP) – Archeologists have discovered the 1,600-year-old skeleton of an upper-class woman whose skull was intentionally deformed and teeth were encrusted with mineral stones near Mexico’s ancient ruins of Teotihuacan.

Teeth

The woman, between 35 and 40 years old when she died, was buried with 19 jars that served as offerings, the National Anthropology and History Institute said.

Her cranium was elongated by being compressed in a “very extreme” manner, a technique commonly used in the southern part of Mesoamerica, not the central region where she was found, the institute said in a statement.

Although other intentionally deformed skeletons have been found in Teotihuacan, this one — dubbed “The Woman of Tlailotlacan” after the neighborhood where it was found — is among those with the most deformations.

Another distinctive feature, showing the woman was a “foreigner” in Teotihuacan, is the two round pyrite stones encrusted in her top front teeth, a technique used in Mayan regions in southern Mexico and Central America.

She also wore a prosthetic lower tooth made of a green stone known as serpentine.

The enigmatic pre-Hispanic city of Teotihuacan, some 50 kilometers (30 miles) north of Mexico City, thrived between the first and eighth centuries, after which its civilization vanished.

Its two majestic Sun and Moon pyramids are major tourist attractions.*

 

Source: AFP – YahooNews     (07-07-2016)

Unearthed: A Friars’ Leather Shop

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 Greyfriars excavation, Oxford, England  (Courtesy Oxford Archaeology) 

An excavation in Oxford, England, conducted by Oxford Archaeology in advance of the expansion of a shopping center, has turned up a large number of leather and wood objects dating to the fourteenth century, when the site was occupied by buildings associated with the Greyfriars religious order. The artifacts were unusually well preserved because they were buried beneath the water table. Among the finds are around 100 leather shoes, a leather bag, a leather money purse, and a wooden bowl.

Trenches-Oxford-Greyfriars-Artifacts

 

 

“Somebody seems to have been saving up worn-out shoes,” says Ben Ford, the excavation’s project manager. “Maybe it was a cobbler working at the friary.”*

 

 

Credit:  Written By Daniel Weiss  Contributor – Archaeology Magazine