100,000 Year Old Ruins of South Africa

This article first appeared on grahamhancock.com and is written by Micheal Tellinger.

The history of southern Africa is one of the great untold stories of the world. It has remained a guarded mystery by traditional knowledge keepers and African shaman for thousands of years. But in 2003 everything changed with the accidental and serendipitous discovery of an ancient stone calendar that caused a chain reaction of events, which led us to decoding one of the greatest missing pieces regarding our human origins and the activity of the Anunnaki on planet Earth.

Many history books and scholars have told us that the first civilisation on Earth emerged in a land called Sumer, some 6000 years ago. This Sumerian civilisation left behind a detailed account of human activity in millions of clay tablets that continue to reveal critical human behaviour and outlines the relationship between the Anunna gods and the people of Sumer.

But our archaeological discoveries that began in 2003 suggest that the Sumerians may have inherited much of their knowledge from a civilisation that emerged many thousands of years earlier in southern Africa, already thought to be the cradle of humankind. These discoveries also suggest that the same deities, who have become known as the Anunnaki through the works of Zecharia Sitchin and many others, were also very active in the lives of the people of southern Africa, more than 200,000 years ago.

In 2003, a strange arrangement of large stones that were neatly planted at the edge of a cliff near the town of Kaapschehoop, South Africa, was spotted by Johan Heine from his aeroplane. After returning to the spot the next day to see the site on the ground, he instantly realised that this was no ordinary, nor natural arrangement of monoliths, and so began a process of measurements and calculations that lasted several years. His meticulous analysis clearly shows that this was an ancient calendar that is aligned with the movements of the sun, solstices and equinoxes, and that we can still mark every day of the year by the movement of the shadows cast on the flat surface of the calendar stone at the centre of the site.

But as it is with many ancient sites, including Stonehenge, the calendar aspect is not the main purpose of this structure, but merely a crucial feature built into the site. We have discovered deeper and more mysterious functions that only became apparent after many electronic and scientific measurements several years later.

Through its alignment with the stars and the movement of the sun, this African Stonehenge that I named ‘Adam’s Calendar’ has for the first time created a link to the countless other stone ruins in southern Africa, and suggests that these ruins are much older than we initially thought and forces us to start rethinking the activity by early humans in the so-called “Cradle of Humankind”.

The discovery of this calendar site was nothing new to Johan Heine, who had already spent at least 15 years photographing mysterious circular stone structures scattered throughout the mountains and valleys of southern Africa. These circular stone ruins have become affectionately known as the “stone circles” and they lie scattered in large clusters throughout the entire sub-continent that includes South Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana and parts of Mozambique. The complex that links Nelspruit, Waterval Boven, Machadodorp, Carolina, Badplaas, Dullstroom and Lydenburg, and has a radius of approximately 60 kilometres, covering an area larger then modern-day Los Angeles, has emerged as the largest and most mysterious ancient city on Earth.

The discovery of a bird statue that resembles Horus carved out of dolerite, a small sphinx about 1,5 metres long carved out of the same dolerite rock, a petroglyph of a winged disk, many carvings of Sumerian crosses in circles and an ankh in a radiating circle suggest that the prototype Sumerian and Egyptian civilisations had their origins in southern Africa thousands of years before they emerged in the north.

After meeting Johan Heine in early 2007, he invited me, along with a large group of the most senior scholars in the field of archaeology, history and geology from several South African universities, to experience the spectacular vista of the ruins from a helicopter, an event that spanned an entire weekend. Though this was an incredible opportunity of a birds-eye-view of the stone circles, on the day of the event, I was the only one to arrive. And so, I alone gained new perspective and became the one that carried the torch of future research and investigation.

Six years of research by a group of independent scientists and explorers has delivered what may be the crucial missing elements in our understanding of the lives and development of early modern humans. Our discoveries have been noted in two books – Adam’s Calendar and African Temples of The Anunnaki and will be updated in the soon to be released The Lost City of ENKI. But the research has also shown that these stone settlements represent the most mysterious and misunderstood structures found to date. It points to a civilisation that lived at the southern tip of Africa, mining gold for more than 200,000 years, and then completely and suddenly vanished from the radar. We may be looking at the activities of the oldest civilisation on Earth.

Little did I know that when I named the newly discovered stone calendar “Adam’s Calendar” how close to the truth I would be. This was only revealed to me by the preeminent Zulu Shaman Credo Mutwa some 2 years later, when he told me that he was initiated at the site in 1937 as a young shaman, and that this site is known to African knowledge keepers as Inzalo Ye Langa, or “Birthplace of The Sun”, where “heaven mated with mother earth” and where humanity was created by the gods.

But Credo went even further in his detailed explanation of the deep significance of the site when he explained that it was not just any god of the ancient times that created humanity, but specifically a deity that is know in Zulu as “Enkai”, the same deity know as ENKI in the Sumerian texts. This throws a whole new spin on our understanding of the Anunnaki on Earth and the “fingerprints” they left not only on ancient stone ruins but also the genetic manipulation and creation of the human race. These fingerprints have now been very clearly exposed in our genetic makeup by the brilliant work of William Brown, a molecular biologist and geneticist of the highest order who is part of the research team of Nassim Haramein’s Resonance Project Research Foundation, on the island of Kauai.

Out of Synch Alignments

After surveying Adam’s Calendar, it turned out that the north, south, east, west alignment is out by 3 degrees – 17 minutes – 43 sec in an anti-clockwise direction. This may be a critical discovery regarding turbulent times in antiquity because it irrefutably proves that the earth’s north-south alignment today, is not where it was when the calendar was constructed. It irrefutably proves that our planet has undergone a crustal displacement, or something along those lines, taking the north-south pole alignment with it. The theory of Crustal Shift or Crustal Displacement was proposed by scientist Charles Hapgood and strongly supported by Albert Einstein. Adam’s Calendar gives us the geophysical proof that such events did actually occur. What we do not know however at this stage, is when this shift happened.

Mysterious ancient ruins of southern Africa.

Until I started my research in 2007, it was generally accepted by scholars that there are about 20,000 ancient stone ruins scattered throughout the mountains of southern Africa. Modern historians have been speculating about the origins of these ruins, often calling them “cattle kraal of little historic importance”. The truth of the matter is that closer scientific inspection paints a completely different and astonishing new picture about the ancient history of these stone ruins. The scientific reality is that we actually know very little about these spectacular ancient ruins and it is a great tragedy that thousands have already been destroyed, and continue to be destroyed through sheer ignorance by power lines, forestry, municipalities, farmers and new housing developments.

After my personal explorations on foot and by air over the ruins, I confidently estimated the number of ancient stone ruins to be well over 100,000. This figure was confirmed by Prof. Revil Mason in January 2009. But after doing an extensive count on Google Earth and other aerial photographs I concluded that there are at least a staggering 10 million of these circular ruins. The mystery deepened when I found out that they have no doors or entrances in their original form and therefore could not have been dwellings. They were all originally connected by what we now call channels – (which our history books call roads that tribes drove their cattle on) – and are also surrounded and connected to an ongoing grid of agricultural terraces that cover more than 450,000 square kilometres. This clearly points to a vast vanished civilisation who grew crops on a gigantic scale.

Population Problem

This immediately poses a huge problem for archaeologists, anthropologists and historians because the accepted history of this part of the planet does not at any time in our past place anywhere nearly enough people here to have built this number of structures. It gets even more complex when you realise that these were not just isolated structures left behind by migrating hunter-gatherers, but a giant complex of circular structures all connected by the strange channels and suspended in a never-ending web of agricultural terraces. If we were to assume that these were dwellings, it would suggest a population of at least 10 million people – which is unimaginable to most of us today.

Ancient Gold Fields

It is important to note that the mysterious ruins of southern Africa, which include Great Zimbabwe and millions of similar ruins in that country, also extend into neighbouring areas like Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, Kenya and Mozambique. But why were these ancient people here in the first place? What were they doing?

The past 200 years has seen a number of explorers write in great detail about these ruins, but their findings have been largely forgotten and their books are out of print. Most of these early explorers write about thousands of ancient mine shafts found in close proximity to these ruins. In fact, most of these mines have been described as gold mines, copper, tin and iron mines. In my personal experience and research I have found at least 25 ancient mine shafts in gold-rich areas and been told about dozens more by farmers all over South Africa. Ancient mines covered by 30 metres of soil have been reported by at least 2 miners in the ‘30’s in the province of Limpopo and more than 75,000 mines have been reported by geological companies in Mpumalanga. It seems that gold mining has been going on here for a lot longer than most of us ever imagined.

Ann Kritzinger, a geologist from University of Zimbabwe has shown in several papers that many of the ruins in Zimbabwe were most likely for the purpose of extracting and purifying gold – and were not slave pits, animal pits or grain pits as is often suggested by ignorant scholars.

The presence of Dravidian gold miners is shown in great detail by Dr Cyril Hromnik in his astonishing book “Indo Africa” 1981 – showing in great detail the exploits of the MaKomati people – Hindu Dravidians – who were here in southern Africa mining gold as far back as 2000 years ago and probably even further back in time.

Sumeria and Abantu

The links to the Sumerian civilisation in southern Africa simply cannot be ignored or erased. They can even be traced with etymology in the names and origins of indigenous people. The most obvious evidence are the mysterious origins of the word “Abantu”, the name commonly used to describe black South Africans. According to Credo Mutwa, the name is derived from the Sumerian goddess Antu. “Abantu” simply means the children or people of Antu.

Energy Generation – Ancient knowledge

Extensive electronic measurements in 2011 have shown that the circular stone ruins are in fact energy generating devices, using the natural sound that emanates from the surface of the Earth, creating electromagnetic fields as a result of the sound amplification. The shape of the circular ruins are all very specific and unique because each circle represents the cymatic pattern of the sound energy as it appears on the surface of the earth at that point. This energy was amplified by a simple understanding of harmonics and utilised in the same way that we generate LASER and SASER beam technology today. Giant magnetron-shaped structures suggest that this was well understood by the ancients. I have measured these spectacular energies and electromagnetic waves and therefore do not hesitate to make these claims. Some of the sound frequencies go into the extremely high Giga hertz levels (over 380 Giga hertz) which are unheard of on Earth today in any normal application.

The fact that these circles are all connected by the stone channels makes it very clear to any scientist who works with electricity or energy that the stone circle complex is a giant energy generating grid that was most likely used in the mining and processing of gold on a scale unimaginable to us today.

Dating of The Ruins And Artefacts

This is a critical aspect of my research and there are several methods that I have had to resort to because we cannot use carbon dating to establish the age of stone. Neither can we assume that pottery or other artefacts found in the ruins were left behind by the architects. The many tools and artefacts that I have collected for my small museum in Waterval Boven are very unique and very mysterious – all made out of stone. They all seem to display strong acoustic properties and I call them “stones that ring like bells”. This was the realisation that led me to discover that sound played a critical role in the building of the ruins and the use of the energies that they create. One of the most obvious techniques I use in determining the possible age of the tools, is the patina growth that forms on the rock. The kind of patina or skin that grows on these artefacts, grows at a very slow rate that is estimated to be about one thousand years per microscopic layer. In other words, by the time that the patina is visible to the naked eye, it is already a few thousand years old. Most of the artefacts in my collection are completely covered in patina several millimetres thick, suggesting that these ancient tools must be well over 100,000 years old or even substantially older.

In conclusion, we are standing at the threshold of a brand new discovery that will expose great surprises and unveil a great hidden part of human history. My  book UBUNTU Contributionism – A Blueprint For Human Prosperity was released in September 2013 and I am completing the follow up to African Temples of The Anunnaki that will contain all the latest discoveries and conclusions I have reached regarding the vanished civilisations of southern Africa to date.

calendar site
An aerial view of the calendar site perched on the edge of the Transvaal escarpment consisting of black reef quartzite. The tree on the right is the north marker – the tree on the left marks south. All the monoliths that make up the circular calendar structure are dolerite. We do not know where the dolerite comes from. Note the sculptured pointed monolith closest to the edge. This is one of the 3 fallen monoliths that aligns with the rise of Orion’s belt.
calendar stone
Johan Heine shows us the shadow that moves from left to right of the calendar stone, allowing us to mark the days of the year, from the summer solstice on the left edge, to the winter solstice on the right edge.
Adam's Calendar
A close-up view of the Adam’s Calendar, showing that the north-south line dissects the two central calendar stones. The tree in the centre is where the north marker stone is located.
Adam's Calendar
This monolith at Adam’s Calendar was removed from its original position in 1994 where it stood looking at the sunrise on the equinox over the large central monoliths. It now serves as a plaque stand at the entrance to the nature reserve.
calendar site
Although it is badly eroded, the original circular form of the calendar site can still be seen on this satellite image, with the 2 main monoliths at its centre. The north-south deviation can also be immediately seen as the north marker slants slightly to the left of 12 o’clock. It was measure do be 3 degrees, 17 minutes and 43 sec.
mysterious ancient stone ruins
One of the many mysterious ancient stone ruins that seems to have a greater purpose in its design. The Phi factor of 1,618 seems to be well used in this and other structures’ dimensions.
ancient energy grid
A small section of the ancient energy grid that stretches more than 450,000 km square linked by the ancient channels that can be clearly seen from the air. This kind detail is not at all visible to observers on the ground.
Ancient terraces
Ancient terraces surround large complex structures and cover more than 450,000 km square.

For more information about my research and presentations please see my website



Michael Tellinger is a scientist, researcher, and regular guest on more than 200 radio shows in the United States, United Kingdom, and Europe, such as Coast to Coast AM with George Noory and the Shirley Maclaine Show. In March 2011 he hosted the Megalithomania Conference in Johannesburg, South Africa, featuring Graham Hancock, Andrew Collins, and Robert Temple. He lives in South Africa.



Youtube Videos with Michael Tellinger

Unearthed: A Friars’ Leather Shop


 Greyfriars excavation, Oxford, England  (Courtesy Oxford Archaeology) 

An excavation in Oxford, England, conducted by Oxford Archaeology in advance of the expansion of a shopping center, has turned up a large number of leather and wood objects dating to the fourteenth century, when the site was occupied by buildings associated with the Greyfriars religious order. The artifacts were unusually well preserved because they were buried beneath the water table. Among the finds are around 100 leather shoes, a leather bag, a leather money purse, and a wooden bowl.




“Somebody seems to have been saving up worn-out shoes,” says Ben Ford, the excavation’s project manager. “Maybe it was a cobbler working at the friary.”*



Credit:  Written By Daniel Weiss  Contributor – Archaeology Magazine

Do you know that if you linked together all the Inca roads…

 …it would almost wrap around the     circumference of our entire planet?



The network was based on two north-south roads with numerous branches. The best known portion of the road system is the Inca Trail to Machu Picchu.

The eastern route ran high in the puna grasslands and mountain valleys from Quito, Ecuador to Mendoza, Argentina. The western route followed the coastal plain not including in coastal deserts where it hugged the foothills.

The Inca road system linked together about 40,000 kilometres (25,000 mi) of roadway and provided access to over 3,000,000 square kilometres (1,200,000 sq mi) of territory.

When you consider that the Earth’s circumference is 40,075 km, the road network could almost encircle the entire planet!*….. Source: www.HeritageDaily.com


More about the Inca Engineering:

The Inca Road System 

The Inca road system formed a network known as the royal highway or qhapaq ñan, which became an invaluable part of the Inca empire, not only facilitating the movement of armies, people, and goods but also providing an important physical symbol of imperial control. Across plains, deserts, and mountains, the network connected settlements and administrative centres. Well-built and lasting, many roads included bridges, causeways, stairways, and also had small stations (chaskiwasi) and sometimes larger, more luxurious complexes (tambos) dotted along every 20 km or so, where travellers could spend the night and refresh.


The Inca road system formed a network known as the royal highway or qhapaq ñan, which became an invaluable part of the Inca empire, not only facilitating the movement of armies, people, and goods but also providing an important physical symbol of imperial control. Across plains, deserts, and mountains, the network connected settlements and administrative centres. Well-built and lasting, many roads included bridges, causeways, stairways, and also had small stations (chaskiwasi) and sometimes larger, more luxurious complexes (tambos) dotted along every 20 km or so, where travellers could spend the night and refresh.

Inca Roads

<Inca road and bridge


Inca roads were built without the benefit of sophisticated surveying equipment using only wooden, stone, andbronze tools. As they were built in different geographical zones using local populations, the roads are, consequently, not uniform in construction design or materials. The width of most roads varies from one to four metres, although some could be much bigger, such as the 15-metre wide highway in the Huánuco Pampa province. Sometimes there are also two or three roads constructed in parallel, especially near the larger urban centres. Flattened road beds – often raised – were usually made using packed earth, sand, or grass. The more important roads were finished with precisely arranged paving stones or cobbles. Roads were typically edged and protected with small stone walls, stone markers, wooden or cane posts, or piles of stones. Drainage was provided by frequent drains and culverts, which drew off rainwater from the road surface, channelling it either along or under the road. When crossing wetlands, roads were often supported by buttress walls or built on causeways. Bridges of stone or reeds were also constructed to cover distances in a more direct route as were large, stone, llama-friendly staircases in mountainous terrain. There was even an appointed official, the Chaka Suyuyuq, responsible for inspecting the empire’s bridges.

Generally, and despite their reputation for Roman-like long straight roads, Inca roads tended to follow natural contours as the straight stretches of road are rarely more than a few kilometres long. It is also noteworthy that Inca roads are very often more elaborate and well-constructed than was actually necessary. This attention to detail was almost certainly in order to impress travellers and conquered peoples of the superiority of Inca culture as felt by the lords of Cuzco.

Surely one of the most impressive sights and showcases for Inca engineering must have been the many rope suspension bridges which crossed perilous ravines. These were built using braids of reed or grass rope with wooden and fibre flooring. Perhaps the most famous crossed the Apurimac River near Cuzco and measured 45 metres in length. Suspension bridges were often built in pairs perhaps with one bridge for commoners and one for nobles. An alternative to such bridges was the oroya, a suspended basket which transported two or three people at a time over a greater distance than could be reached with a rope bridge. Local populations were given the responsibility of maintaining these perishable structures each year as part of their imperial tribute.

An Inca Road Rest Station

Inca test stn


The extensive reach of the road network allowed the Incas to better move armies across their territories in order to further expand the empire or maintain order within it. Trade goods and tribute from conquered peoples – both goods and people – could also be easily transported to and from the major Inca centres, typically using llama caravans and porters (there were no wheeled vehicles). Inca administrative officials also travelled along the roads in order to dispense justice or maintain records such as local agricultural production, tribute quotas, and censuses. Ordinary people were not permitted to use the roads for private purposes unless they had official permission. They also sometimes had to pay tolls for the privilege, especially at bridges.

Another interesting feature of Inca roads was the use of runners (chaski or chasquis). Moving as fast as they could, they operated in relays, passing information to a fresh runner stationed every six to nine kilometres. However, it was not only messages that were carried between population centres but also such perishable items as fresh fish and seafood for the tables of Inca nobles. With this system, information (and fish) could travel up to 240 km in a single day. Messages carried over long distances would have involved hundreds of oral exchanges, and to preserve the correct meaning of the original message, quipu – a coded assembly of strings and knots – were probably used to help the memory of the runners.


Many sections of the Inca road network survive today and are still used by pedestrians, especially near such sites as Machu Picchu, where large stone stairways and bridges give access to the site for modern tourists. In addition, some of the original Inca routes have had modern roads built directly over them, illustrating the skills and vision for crossing terrain and distances possessed by Inca engineers and road builders.*


Source Article by   – Contributor:  www.ancient.eu


12,000-year-old grave of Shaman woman unearthed in Galilee


Bones of a prehistoric woman discovered in a burial site in the Hilazon cave in northern Israel. (Naftali Hilger)

Well-preserved burial site sheds new light on the prevalence of ritual practice in prehistoric human society

Adorned with tortoise shells, gazelle horns and a human foot, the 12,000-year-old grave of a woman unearthed in northern Israel is shedding new light on the prevalence of ritual practice in prehistoric society.

Israeli and American archaeologists, who discovered the well-preserved burial site in the Hilazon Tachtit Cave in the Galilee, suspect the body belonged to a female shaman who lived during the the late Natufian era (10,800-9,500 BCE)

Fragments of chalk and limestone along with a leopard’s pelvis, a forearm of a wild boar and an eagle’s wing were also among the unusual objects discovered surrounding the remains of the woman.

The team of archaeologists — led by Hebrew University’s Prof. Leore Grosman and Prof. Natalie Munro of Connecticut University — were able to speculatively reenact the woman’s funeral ceremony that took place as human societies began to shift from hunter gatherers to agriculture-based communities.

Hebrew University archaeologists uncover 12,000-year-old grave inside a cave in northern Israel (Naftali Hilger)

“One of the earliest funeral banquets ever to be discovered reveals a pre-planned, carefully constructed event that reflects social changes at the beginning of the transition to agriculture in the Natufian period,” a statement from the Hebrew University this week said of the discovery.

The cave — home to at least 28 other graves — was first discovered in 2006, though Grosman and Munro were only recently able to sequence the order of the funeral ritual.

“We’ve assigned the event to stages based on field notes, digitized maps, stones, architecture and artifact frequency distributions and concentrations,” Grosman said.

Grosman noted the wide range of activities required to preparation for the ritual, including the collection of various materials and animal slaughter.

“The significant pre-planning implies that there was a defined ‘to do’ list, and a working plan of ritual actions and their order,” he said.

The statement said the discovery was unprecedented, since the study of ancient burial rituals has up until now only been possible after humans began to bury their dead in archaeologically visible locations.


The Natufian period (15,000-11,500 years ago) in the southern Levant marks an increase in the frequency and concentration of human burials.

“The remnants of a ritual event at this site provide a rare opportunity to reconstruct the dynamics of ritual performance at a time when funerary ritual was becoming an increasingly important social mediator at a crucial juncture deep in human history,” the researchers said.

According to Grosman and Munro, the unprecedented scale and extent of social change in the Natufian era make the period central to current debates regarding the origin and significance of social and ritual engagement in the prehistoric agricultural transition.*



Bronze Age Necropolis Unearthed In Siberia

These compelling images show ancient burials in Staryi Tartas village, in Novosibirsk region, where scientists have studied some 600 tombs. Dozens contain the bones of couples, facing each other, some with their hands held together seemingly for eternity.

Bronze Age necropolis unearthed in Siberia

Russian archaeologists have uncovered the bones of dozens of couples buried facing each other in Staryi Tartas village in Siberia   [Credit:Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences]

Others show men or women buried with a child or children. But why? Archaeologists are struggling for explanations and believe DNA tests will provide the answers to these remarkable burials which one writer Vasiliy Labetskiy described poignantly as skeletons in ‘post-mortal hugs with bony hands clasped together’.

As eminent academic Vyacheslav Molodin, 65, told The Siberian Times there are a number of theories about these Andronovo burials  – for example that after the man died, his wife was killed and buried with him – but for now the true reason remains unclear. Another version even suggests that some of the couples were deliberately buried as if in a sexual act, possibly with a young woman sacrificed to play this role in the grave.

‘We can fantasize a lot about all this. We can allege that husband died and the wife was killed to be interred with him as we see in some Scythian burials, or maybe the grave stood open for some time and they buried the other person or persons later, or maybe it was really simultaneous death,’ said Professor Molodin, Director of Research of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Bronze Age necropolis unearthed in Siberia

Along with the bodies were buried people’s belongings, some of the pottery, with ornaments including swastikas,.belonged to people who were very different from native Siberians’    [Credit: Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences]

‘When we speak about a child and an adult, it looks more natural and understandable. When we speak about two adults – it is not so obvious. So we can raise quite a variety of hypotheses, but how it was in fact, we do not know yet.’

Another theory is that especially the couples buried between the 17th and 14th centuries BC signify the beginnings of the nuclear family as a unit, so that in death they demonstrate the importance attached by these ancient people to this form of relationship.

‘This could be the case. But, you see, we need to firstly establish unequivocally the kinship of those who were buried,’ said Professor Molodin referring to the necropolis close to the confluence of the rivers Tartas and Om. ‘Until recently archaeologists had no such opportunity, they could establish only the gender and age. But now as we have at our disposal the tools of paleogenetics, we could speak about establishing the kinship.’
Bronze Age necropolis unearthed in Siberia

Some graves at the site in Novosibirsk region in western Siberia show adults buried with children   [Credit: Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences]

He hopes that ‘in the nearest future’ his researchers ‘will have significantly more data’. In five to ten years the secrets of these remarkable burials maybe revealed.

‘For example, we found the burial a man and a child. What is a degree of their kinship? Are they father and son or….? The same question arises when we found a woman and a child. It should seem obvious – she is the mother. But it may not be so. She could be an aunt, or not a relative at all. To speak about this scientifically we need the tools of paleogenetics.

‘We have a joint laboratory with the Institute of Cytology and Genetics, of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science,  and we actively work in this direction. We do such analysis but it is quite expensive still and there are few specialists. We are also solving other questions with help of paleogenetics.’

Bronze Age necropolis unearthed in Siberia

One writer described the scenes in the graves poignantly as skeletons in ‘post-mortal hugs with bony hands clasped together’   [Credit: Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences]

With such couple burials, Professor Lev Klein of St Petersburg State University has proposed they are linked to reincarnation beliefs possibly influenced by deeksha rituals in the ancient Indian sub-continent at the time when the oldest scriptures of Hinduism were composed.

‘The man during his lifetime donated his body as a sacrifice to all the gods,’ he wrote. ‘The ‘deeksha’ was considered as a ‘second birth’ and to complete this ritual the sacrificing one made a ritual sexual act of conceiving.’

In other words, in death a man should perform a sexual act to impregnate a woman. ‘Perhaps in the pre-Vedic period relatives of the deceased often sought to reproduce the ‘deeksha’ posthumously, and sacrificed a woman or a girl (or a few), and simulated sexual intercourse in the grave’.

Bronze Age necropolis unearthed in Siberia

Professor Lev Klein of St Petersburg State University has proposed the coupled burials
are linked to reincarnation beliefs possibly influenced by deeksha rituals   [Credit: Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences]

There has been theorizing that on the man’s death, his wife was sacrificed and buried with him for posterity in an act of intimacy. Or, as Klein suggests, could a young woman have been sacrificed for this purpose, used to fulfil the female part in this ritual?

Professor Molodin doesn’t rule out this version, yet makes clear it is only a hypothesis. ‘It is again a suggestion. As a suggestion, it could be. This idea of Klein can be extended to Siberia too, because significant part of the researchers think that Andronovo people were Iranians.

‘So this hypothesis can be extended to them. But, I will repeat, it is only a hypothesis.’
Bronze Age necropolis unearthed in Siberia

The ‘deeksha’ was considered as a ‘second birth’ and to complete this ritual the sacrificing
one made a ritual sexual act of conceiving’    [Credit: Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences]

There are he says ‘a good number’ of these couple graves. ‘The number impresses. More that this, we see some interesting facts. For Andronovo culture, cremation is more typical, and here we can see such interesting combination like cremation and inhumation in one burial. Why it is so?

‘There is a version that they did not just pour the ashes into the grave, but made a doll and put the ashes in this. But we can not say for sure.  There are also burials with just several cremated remains. So it is more complicated than ‘They loved each other and died in one day’.’

He thinks that in most cases the couple graves were filled at the same time; so that it is not a case of a man dying and his wife being added to the grave when she died some years later. ‘It is very hard to say. I believe that all of them were buried almost at the same time, but on this necropolis we meet quite often robbed graves. And it turned out that one body was intact, and the second was damaged’.


Bronze Age necropolis unearthed in SiberiaArchaeologists are struggling for explanations and believe DNA tests will provide the answers to these remarkable burials [Credit: Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences]

The couples were buried together with care, this much is clear. These were no hasty funerals after battles.

‘Along with the bodies were buried people’s belongings; not everything has survived, but some of the bronze decorations, ceramic pottery and armaments was found by archaeologists,’ recounted historian and writer Labetskiy.

‘Some of the pottery, with ornaments including … swastikas … belonged to people who were very different from native Siberians. Archaeologists classify them as the Andronovo archaeological culture. Their burials are recognised by the position of the body, which is crouched on the side, while locals buried people lying on the back.’

Bronze Age necropolis unearthed in Siberia
It is hoped that DNA analysis will establish if these ancient couple burials were related    [Credit: Institute of Archeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences]

These incomers in western Siberia looked like Caucasian people, it is believed. They ‘bred cattle, were well acquainted with metallurgy and used the innovation of the times, carts and combat chariots drawn by horses’.

‘Grave goods consisted of pottery vessels, bronze ornaments, bronze daggers, ‘gaming pieces’ (horse phalanges and sheep astragals) and bone arrowheads, a special find was a four-sided stone mould for casting ear rings and pendants,’ states one account detailing co-operation between the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science in Novosibirsk and the the Eurasia-Department of the German Archaeological Institute.

‘Large ritual pits associated with the burials contained animal bones, bone and bronze artifacts, but also, for example, a well preserved casting mould for a large socketed axe.’

Bronze Age necropolis unearthed in Siberia
Professor Vyacheslav Molodin pictured at Staryi Tartas archaeological site.  [Credit: Novosibirsk Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography]

As Labetskiy wrote: ‘Archeology can’t answer all these questions precisely, at least not yet. Behind Andronov burials lay extraordinary stories about travels and discoveries, about human destinies and the destinies of whole civilisations.’

There is, he argues, ‘a certain beauty in this unfinished story’ conjuring for him the Welsh poet Dylan Thomas’ classic ‘And Death Shall Have No Dominion’.

‘The best fairytales have always ended ‘They lived happily ever after, and died on the same day’.

‘It is quite astonishing how the fairytales become life, as the bronze burials tell us a story how some people were not divided even by death’.
Author: Anna Liesowska   Source: SiberianTimes.com

Secret tunnel sealed 1,800 years ago offers clues to mysterious ancient city in Mexico

Mexiko 2006; Mexico City

The ancient city of Teotihuacán northeast of Mexico City in Mexico holds more mysteries than answers. Archaeologists can only guess where the people who built the city came from, what religion they practiced, and why they abandoned the city. But the recent archaeological discovery of a tunnel under one of the city’s pyramids, the Temple of the Plumed Serpent, which was sealed off around 1,800 years ago, may give us a few more clues about who inhabited and built the baffling city.

Archaeologist Sergio Gómez, who works for the National Institute of Anthropology and History in Mexico, has worked in the area for around 30 years. He describes himself as someone more intimately acquainted with Teotihuacán than most other humans alive. But he had no idea there was anything under the Temple of the Plumed Serpent until a rainstorm struck the area in 2003.

That’s when Gómez noticed a sinkhole that had opened near the base of the pyramid. Colleagues lowered him into the sinkhole and his feet touched bottom in what looked like a tunnel made by humans. Gómez finally gained approval from the government to start digging in 2009.

The tunnel appears to have been sealed off with boulders on purpose close to 1,800 years ago. Gómez thought perhaps whoever sealed the tunnel meant for it to remain closed forever. His teams have worked carefully to uncover a wide array of artifacts, from human skin to boxes containing beetle wings to jaguar bones to elegantly carved statues.

tunnel_grid_searchThe tunnel is a thrilling discovery, and Gómez’s teams will keep working to probably uncover even more treasures. Gómez told Smithsonian Magazine, “The number of artifacts we’ve uncovered…you could spend a whole career evaluating the contents.”


Perhaps as far back as 400 BC, people settled in Teotihuacán, but residents probably built the metropolis, including pyramids and broad boulevards, around 100 A.D. Around 750 A.D. Teotihuacán was abandoned.


The Aztecs didn’t find the city until sometime in the 1300s, and in their language, Nahuatl, Teotihuacán means “the place where men become gods,” adding another layer of mystery.*


Author:   Contributor:   Inhabitat.com


The Mystery Of Gobekli Tepe

By ROBERT M. SCHOCH, PH.D.—gc3b6bekli-tepe-1

What were our ancestors like 10,000 or more years ago? The most common image is one of small
nomadic bands endlessly in pursuit of the next meal. Men hunted game while women and children gathered fruits, seeds, roots, shoots, insects, and other edibles.

The height of technology was a finely worked stone knife blade or spear point; nets, baskets, and cordage were also put to good use. Permanent structures were superfluous, for the group never stayed in one place very long. Material goods were sparse as possessions had to be limited to those easily carried. Jewellery (perhaps beads, animal teeth, or shells strung on a cord) and personal decoration (body paint, tattoos) were prized. In colder climates appropriate clothing was fashioned from animal skins. Social institutions were minimal. Not until the Neolithic Revolution, beginning about 10,000 years ago, did agriculture and domestication appear. This in turn allowed permanent settlement, leading to specialisation of labour, the development of crafts (including pottery and metalworking), the building of substantial structures, long-distance trade, and the slow and gradual evolution of complex societies.

None of this happened overnight. It took thousands of years, and it was not until around 4000 to 3000 BCE that true signs of high culture first appeared, such as fine artistry in decorative crafts, written records, scientific observations of the heavens, complex political organisations, and megalithic building projects. This level of achievement was reached in Mesopotamia, the Nile Valley, and the Indus Valley by the beginning of the third millennium BCE. A well-known example is the rise of dynastic Egypt about 3200 to 3100 BCE and the building of the Djoser pyramid circa 2630 BCE. Stonehenge in England dates from the same period.

Although accepted as dogma by many, this nice neat scenario may be completely wrong.

Questioning Accepted History

Back in 1991, I had the temerity to announce that the Great Sphinx of Egypt, conventionally dated to 2500 BCE (the reign of Pharaoh Khafre), actually has its origins in the 7000 to 5000 BCE range, or possibly earlier.

My announcement was done via a presentation at the October 1991 annual meeting of the Geological Society of America (this was allowed only after a formal abstract, submitted with my colleague John Anthony West, was accepted based on positive professional peer review).1 I made my case utilising scientific analyses, comparing erosion and weathering profiles around the Sphinx to the ancient climatic history of Egypt.

In brief, the Sphinx sits on the edge of the Sahara Desert, a hyper-arid region for the past 5,000 years; yet the statue shows substantial rain-induced erosion. The original structure must date back thousands of years prior to 3000 BCE (the head was re-carved in dynastic times).

I had pushed the Great Sphinx, arguably the grandest and most recognisable statue in the world, back into a period when humanity was supposedly just transitioning from a hunter-gatherer economy to a sedentary life. People 7,000 or more years ago were still brutish and unsavoury, at least by modern civilised standards. Certainly they were not carving giant statues (the Sphinx is about 20 meters tall by over 70 meters long) out of solid limestone bedrock. Immediately after my announcement of an older Sphinx, I was under attack. Archaeologist Carol Redmount (University of California, Berkeley) was quoted in the media, “There’s just no way that could be true.” The article continued, “The people of that region would not have had the technology, the governing institutions or even the will to build such a structure thousands of years before Khafre’s reign, she said.”2

The initial hoopla peaked in February 1992 at a “debate” on the age of the Great Sphinx held at the Chicago meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.3 As the New York Timesput it, “The exchange was to last an hour, but it spilled over to a news conference and then a hallway confrontation in which voices were raised and words skated on the icy edge of scientific politeness.” Egyptologist Mark Lehner could not accept the notion of an older Sphinx, personally attacking me by labelling my research “pseudoscience.” Lehner argued, “If the Sphinx was built by an earlier culture, where is the evidence of that civilisation? Where are the pottery shards? People during that age were hunters and gatherers. They didn’t build cities.”4 

At the time I lacked any pottery shards. But I was sure of my science, and I persisted. Two decades later, we have something better than pottery shards, and even earlier than my conservative Sphinx date of circa 5000 BCE to 7000 BCE (I now currently favour the older end of this range, or an even earlier date for the original Sphinx). Göbekli Tepe dates from over 10,000 years ago.

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Better than Pot Shards

A short drive from Urfa (alternatively Sanlıurfa), southeastern Turkey, atop a mountain north of the Harran Plain, sits Göbekli Tepe. Since 1995 Prof. Dr. Klaus Schmidt of the German Archaeological Institute has been excavating the site.5 Recently I visited it for myself. I was amazed.

At Göbekli Tepe immense finely carved and decorated T-shaped limestone pillars, many in the range of two to five and a half meters tall and weighing up to an estimated 10 to 15 tons, stand in Stonehenge-like circles. The workmanship is extraordinary, with clear sharp edges that would do any modern mason proud. It may be a cliché, but I cannot help but think of the opening scene of the classic 1968 movie 2001: A Space Odyssey. A group of ape-like proto-humans discovers a giant monolith; influenced by it, they learn to use tools, leading to civilisation.6 

Various pillars at Göbekli Tepe are decorated with bas-reliefs of animals, including foxes, boars, snakes, aurochs (wild cattle), Asiatic wild asses, wild sheep, birds (cranes, a vulture), a gazelle, and arthropods (scorpion, ants). The carvings are refined, sophisticated, and beautifully executed. Not only are there bas-reliefs, but also carvings in the round, including a carnivorous beast, possibly a lion or other feline, working its way down a column, apparently in pursuit of a boar carved in relief below. In the round, carvings of lions and boars have been uncovered, now housed in the Museum of Sanlıurfa, as is a life-sized statue of a man, which, though from Urfa, apparently dates to the Göbekli Tepe era.

Also from Göbekli Tepe are perfectly drilled stone beads. And, according to Prof. Schmidt, while some of the stone pillars were set in the local bedrock, others were set into a concrete- or terrazzo-like floor. Looking only at style and quality of workmanship, one might easily suggest that Göbekli Tepe dates between 3000 and 1000 BCE. How wrong one would be. Based on radiocarbon analyses, the site goes back to the period of 9000 to 10,000 BCE, and was intentionally buried circa 8000 BCE.7 That is, the site dates back an astounding 10,000 to 12,000 years ago!

This was supposedly the time of the brutish, nomadic, hunters and gatherers who, according to many academics, did not have the technology, governing institutions, or will to build structures such as those found at Göbekli Tepe. Clearly there is a disconnect between what conventional historians and archaeologists have been teaching all these years and the clear evidence on the ground.

As Stanford University archaeologist Ian Hodder commented, Göbekli Tepe is “unbelievably big and amazing, at a ridiculously early date… huge great stones and fantastic, highly refined art… Many people think that it changes everythingIt overturns the whole apple cart. All our theories were wrong.”8 Like my redating of the Great Sphinx, Göbekli Tepe forces us to reconsider our antiquity.

And like my work on the Sphinx, the specialists are perplexed by Göbekli Tepe. Patrick Symmes wrote inNewsweek, “But the real reason the ruins at Göbekli remain almost unknown, not yet incorporated in textbooks, is that the evidence is too strong, not too weak. ‘The problem with this discovery’, as [Glenn] Schwartz of Johns Hopkins puts it, ‘is that it is unique’. No other monumental sites from the era have been found. Before Göbekli, humans drew stick figures on cave walls, shaped clay into tiny dolls, and perhaps piled up small stones for shelter or worship. Even after Göbekli, there is little evidence of sophisticated building.”9

In a nutshell, we have evidence of high culture and civilisation circa 10,000 to 8000 BCE, but then an apparent decline or hiatus for thousands of years, until the “rise” of civilisation once again in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and elsewhere. What happened?

A Record of Precession at Göbekli Tepe

A hallmark of civilisation is precise scientific observation. Astronomy is often considered the earliest yet most sophisticated of the sciences. A particularly subtle astronomical phenomenon, the discovery of which is generally credited to Hipparchus of Rhodes in the second century BCE,10 is the slow movement of the stars relative to the equatorial coordinate system. This is commonly referred to as the precession of the equinoxes. The entire cycle, with stars returning to their “starting points,” takes somewhat under 26,000 years. Some researchers suggest that precession was known to the ancient Egyptians and other early civilisations, and is reflected in myths worldwide.11 Others dispute such assertions. I found evidence of precession at Göbekli Tepe, adding another layer of sophistication to this remarkable site.

The excavated portions of Göbekli Tepe lie on the southern slope of a hill looking out to the southern skies. Thus far, the better part of four stone circles (enclosures) has been excavated in an area measuring about 40 by 40 meters square. Additional, later and smaller, pillars and structures have been partially uncovered both 20 to 30 meters north and about 80 meters west of the major area of circles,12 and eighteen or more stone circles still under the earth have been identified. Enclosure D is located furthest north. To the southeast lies Enclosure C, and to the south of Enclosure D lies Enclosure B and finally A. The enclosures are very close to each other, almost abutting. Each enclosure possesses a pair of tall central parallel pillars ringed by a circle of shorter pillars with later stonewalls between the pillars. If at some point the enclosures were covered over, they may have been entered from above; indeed, possible carved stone “portals” have been found that may have been set in a roof.

The central pairs of pillars are oriented generally toward the southeast, as if forming sighting tubes toward the sky. The central pillars of Enclosure D include arms and hands, with the hands holding the belly or navel area, and it is clear that the anthropomorphic pillars are facing south. The orientations vary from enclosure to enclosure, however. For Enclosure D the central pillars are oriented approximately 7º east of south. Those for Enclosures C, B, and A are approximately 13º east of south, 20º east of south, and 35º east of south respectively.13 These varying angles suggest the builders were observing stars and building new enclosures oriented progressively toward the east as they followed particular stars or star clusters over hundreds of years.

What were the builders observing? This is a difficult question to answer, but we can hypothesise. On the morning of the Vernal Equinox of circa 10,000 BCE, before the Sun rose due east at Göbekli Tepe, the Pleiades, Taurus, and the top of Orion were in view in the direction indicated by the central stones of Enclosure D, with Orion’s belt not far above the horizon (as seen from the best vantage points in the area) as dawn broke.14 A similar scenario played out for the orientation of the central stones of Enclosure C in circa 9500 BCE and for Enclosure B in circa 9000 BCE. Enclosure A is oriented toward the Pleiades, Taurus, and Orion on the morning of the Vernal Equinox circa 8500 BCE, but due to precessional changes, the entire belt of Orion no longer rose above the horizon before dawn broke. By about 8150 BCE the belt of Orion remained below the horizon at dawn on the morning of the Vernal Equinox. These dates fit well the timeframe established for Göbekli Tepe on the basis of radiocarbon dating.

The Vernal Equinox is easily observed and noted, and since the beginning of recorded history has been an important marker, celebrated with festivities. It marks the first day of the year in numerous calendars, and is tied to cosmological creation stories. I suspect that these traditions go back to Göbekli Tepe times, and even earlier.

The Orion-Taurus region of the sky has been a focus of ancient humans for tens of thousands of years in Europe and the Middle East. Here are located the asterisms of Orion’s belt and the Hyades, as well as the Pleiades. Researchers such as Michael Rappenglueck, Frank Edge, and Luz Antequera Congregado have identified the constellation Taurus and the Pleiades among the paintings of Lascaux cave, France, dating back 16,500 years ago.15 Additionally, Rappenglueck asserts that a tiny tablet from Germany, carved of mammoth ivory and dating back at least 32,500 years, depicts the constellation Orion in the familiar guise of a narrow-waist male with outstretched arms and legs.16 

Given such evidence, it is reasonable that the Göbekli Tepe people recognised Orion as a human figure, even as a hunter. The mammal remains found while excavating Göbekli Tepe (including numerous gazelle, aurochs or wild cattle, wild ass, fox, wild sheep/goat species, and boars), as well as the reliefs on the pillars, can be taken to indicate a hunting society. Indeed, studying the anthropomorphic pillars of Enclosure D, they may represent, in stylised form, Orion. Not only do they have arms (which could be interpreted as the arms of Orion brought down to the body), but also prominent belts (the belt stars of Orion) and fox pelt loincloths that may represent the Orion Nebula and associated features.

My suggestion that the Göbekli Tepe people were observing the Orion-Taurus-Pleiades region of the sky on the morning of the Vernal Equinox is simply a hypothesis. If they were observing stars (versus the Sun, for instance), then they needed to readjust their observations over the centuries due to precessional changes. And maybe they were observing something more than just the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars.

Göbekli Tepe, Easter Island, and the Plasma Connection

Having returned from Easter Island (January 2010) not long before visiting Göbekli Tepe (May 2010), I was surprised to see numerous iconographic similarities between the two. I believe these similarities are real, but I might have missed them if I had not been to both sites in succession. Furthermore, both Easter Island and Göbekli Tepe may relate to powerful plasma events in the skies at the end of the last ice age.

The outstanding feature of Easter Island is the moai, those huge stone heads and torsos that dot the island. In the case of Göbekli Tepe, stone pillars dominate the scene. Amazingly, both the moai and the anthropomorphic central pillars of Enclosure D at Göbekli Tepe have arms and hands positioned similarly against the body, with hands and fingers extended over the belly and navel region. The moai are looking up at the skies, and I believe the Göbekli Tepe pillars are also looking towards the skies. Are they looking to identical phenomena?

As I have discussed elsewhere,17 the indigenous Easter Island rongorongo script may record a major plasma event in the skies thousands of years ago, at the end of the last ice age. Plasma consists of electrically charged particles. Familiar plasma phenomena on Earth today include lightning and auroras, the northern and southern lights. In the past, much more powerful plasma events may have taken place, perhaps due to coronal mass ejections from the Sun or emissions from other celestial objects. Powerful plasma phenomena could cause strong electrical discharges to hit Earth, burning and incinerating materials on the planet’s surface.

Los Alamos plasma physicist Anthony L. Peratt and his associates have established that petroglyphs found worldwide record an intense plasma event (or events) in prehistory.18 Peratt has determined that powerful plasma phenomena observed in the skies would take on characteristic shapes resembling humanoid figures, humans with bird heads, sets of rings or donut shapes, and writhing snakes or serpents – shapes reflected in the ancient petroglyphs. Plasma events may be a dominant theme found among the ancient remains of Easter Island. Likewise, plasma may be important to understanding Göbekli Tepe.

One of the strange and perplexing aspects of Göbekli Tepe is that it was not simply abandoned and left to oblivion, but intentionally buried around 8000 BCE. Furthermore, before its final burial, stonewalls were built between the finely wrought pillars. These walls are, in my opinion, clearly secondary as in many cases they cover over the fine relief carvings on the pillars. They are also much cruder than the pillars. Additionally, some pillars appear to have fallen over and broken, and were subsequently repaired or re-erected when the walls were built. In several cases the bases of the broken pillars are missing or lying horizontally under the tops of the broken pillars that were set to the correct height on a pile of stones. At this late stage the walls and pillars may have been roofed over.

Among the oddities of Easter Island are the low-lying, solid, thick-walled stone buildings with narrow entrances that look like bunkers or fallout shelters. These stone “houses” of Easter Island are similar to the structures formed by the walls and pillars of Göbekli Tepe. Could they, in both cases, have been protection from some type of phenomena emanating from the skies, such as plasma strikes?

Some might criticise comparisons between Easter Island and Göbekli Tepe not only on the basis that they are on opposite sides of the globe, but are also ostensibly separated by thousands of years (Göbekli Tepe dating from 8000 BCE and before, whereas according to standard chronologies Easter Island was not inhabited until a mere millennium and a half ago). In counterargument, I question whether we really know when Easter Island was first colonised. Even if surviving Easter Island antiquities and structures are from a relatively late period, they may reflect earlier traditions and styles, perhaps brought by settlers from elsewhere, that date back to a time of intense plasma outbursts. The rongorongo tablets may carefully preserve ancient texts that were copied over and over.

Just as I have argued that the Easter Island rongorongo script records plasma events in the ancient skies, so too might certain carved motifs found at Göbekli Tepe. Peratt has made the connection between birdman petroglyphs and plasma phenomena around the world. On Easter Island we find birdman petroglyphs as well as birdmen and bird symbols among the rongorongo hieroglyphs. At Göbekli Tepe a very similar bird form was carved into one of the pillars. Peratt records many plasma phenomena that can be interpreted as having the appearance of snakes. An abundance of snakes are found on the pillars of Göbekli Tepe, slithering vertically up and down the ends of some of the columns. Could these represent huge bolts of plasma?

Buried for Posterity

Based on the evidence slowly being pieced together, it appears there may have been a major plasma event, or events, in antiquity. In a previous article (see New Dawn 121)19 I posited that a major plasma event, circa 9700 BCE, helped bring about the end of the last ice age. If the radiocarbon dating of Göbekli Tepe, to circa 10,000 to 8000 BCE is correct, perhaps the first-built stone circle was initiated in response to this plasma event of circa 9700 BCE.

The plasma phenomena were observed originating from the south, the direction toward which the Göbekli Tepe complex is oriented. Plasma events may have continued for centuries, and they may correlate with the additions and elaborations – stonewalls and more stone circles – seen at Göbekli Tepe. Perhaps ultimately the plasma was too much for the Göbekli Tepe people to bear, and they abandoned the site, but not before carefully covering it over. Whether their intention was to return once the skies calmed down, or to preserve their work for posterity, we do not know.

What happened at Göbekli Tepe? What were the people of that time doing? What were they experiencing? Why did they bury their creation and leave? Where did they go? These may be more than simple academic questions.  I suspect that the Göbekli Tepe people experienced something dramatic, something so important they felt compelled to memorialise it in a record of stone that could last for over ten thousand years. They expended enormous resources to leave a message, possibly a warning, for us. Now it is time to fully uncover it and decipher what they had to say.



1. Robert M. Schoch and John Anthony West, “Redating the Great Sphinx of Giza, Egypt”, Geological Society of America abstracts with programs, vol. 23, no. 5, A253 (1991). For further discussion of the date of the Great Sphinx, see: Robert M. Schoch. “Redating the Great Sphinx of Giza”, KMT, A Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt, vol. 3, no. 2, 52-59, 66-70 (Summer 1992); Robert M. Schoch, “Geological Evidence Pertaining to the Age of the Great Sphinx”, in New Scenarios on the Evolution of the Solar System and Consequences on History of Earth and Man (Eds. Emilio Spedicato and Adalberto Notarpietro), Proceedings of the Conference, Milano and Bergamo, June 7-9th, 1999, Università degli Studi di Bergamo, Quaderni del Dipartmento di Matematica, Statistica, Informatica ed Applicazion, Serie Miscellanea, Anno 2002, N. 3, 171-203 (2002); Robert M. Schoch, “Life with the Great Sphinx: Some Personal Reflections”, Darklore, vol. 1, 38-55, 291 (2007); Robert M. Schoch with Robert Aquinas McNally, Voices of the Rocks: A Scientist Looks at Catastrophes and Ancient Civilizations, New York: Harmony Books, 1999; Robert M. Schoch with Robert Aquinas McNally, Voyages of the Pyramid Builders: The True Origins of the Pyramids from Lost Egypt to Ancient America, New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin, 2003; Robert M. Schoch and Robert Aquinas McNally, Pyramid Quest: Secrets of the Great Pyramid and the Dawn of Civilization, New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin, 2005; Robert M. Schoch and John Anthony West, “Further Evidence Supporting a Pre-2500 B.C. Date for the Great Sphinx of Giza, Egypt”, Geological Society of America abstracts with programs, v. 32, no. 7, A276 (2000); T. L. Dobecki and R. M. Schoch, “Seismic Investigations in the Vicinity of the Great Sphinx of Giza, Egypt”,Geoarchaeology, vol. 7, no. 6, 527-544 (1992).

2. Lee Dye, “Sphinx’s New Riddle–Is It Older Than Experts Say? Archeology: Geologists cite study of weathering patterns. But Egyptologists say findings can’t be right”, Los Angeles Times, October 23, 1991. Posted at: http://articles.latimes.com/1991-10-23/news/mn-183_1_great-sphinx (Accessed 14 June 2010).

3. Robert M. Schoch, “How old is the Sphinx?”, Abstracts for the 1992 Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Chicago, 202 (1992).

4. Anonymous, “Scholars Dispute Claim That Sphinx Is Much Older”, New York Times, February 9, 1992. Posted at: www.nytimes.com/1992/02/09/us/scholars-dispute-claim-that-sphinx-is-much-older.html(Accessed 14 June 2010).

5. Klaus Schmidt, Sie bauten die ersten Tempel: Das rätselhafte Heiligtum der Steinzeijäger, Die archäologische Entdeckung am Göbekli Tepe, München: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 2006/2008; Klaus Schmidt, Tas Çagi Avcılarının Gizemli Kutsal Alanı Göbekli Tepe En Eski Tapınagı Yapanlar, Istanbul: Arkeolojí ve Sanat Yayınları, 2007; K. Schmidt, “Göbekli Tepe, Southeastern Turkey: A Preliminary Report on the 1995-1999 Excavations,” Paléorient, vol. 26, no. 1, 45-54 (2001); Joris Peters and Klaus Schmidt, “Animals in the symbolic world of Pre-Pottery Neolithic Göbekli Tepe, south-eastern Turkey: a preliminary assessment”, Anthropozoologica, vol. 39, no. 1, 179-218 (2004). For popular discussions of Göbekli Tepe, see: Graham Chandler (photographs by Ergun Çagatay), “The Beginning of the End for Hunter-Gatherers”, Saudi ARAMCO World, vol. 60, no. 2, 2-9 (March/April 2009); Andrew Curry (photographs by Berthold Steinhilber), “The World’s First Temple? Predating Stonehenge by 6,000 years, Turkey’s Stunning Gobekli Tepe Upends the Conventional View of the Rise of Civilization”,Smithsonian, vol. 39, no. 8, 54-58, 60 (November 2008); Patrick Symmes, “History in the Remaking: A temple complex in Turkey that predates even the pyramids is rewriting the story of human evolution”,Newsweek, 1 March 2010, article published online 19 February 2010 at: www.newsweek.com/id/233844(Accessed 29 April 2010).

6. Stanley Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke, directed by Stanley Kubrick, 2001: A Space Odyssey (film), Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 1968.

7. I briefly discussed the dating of Göbekli Tepe on site with Prof. Schmidt. It is based not only on calibrated radiocarbon dates of circa 9000 BCE or earlier on organic remains found in the material used to fill the site (these dates would be later than the actual occupation of the site), but also dates of circa 8000-7500 BCE on pedogenic carbonate coatings and micro-stalactites on wall stones (see Peters and Schmidt, 2004, 182 [note 5.]). These carbonate coatings and micro-stalactites would have formed only after the burial of the site and after soil formation began, thus indicating that the site itself was buried by circa 8000 BCE. Taken together, I am convinced that the evidence indicates that the site was actively used in the tenth and ninth millennia BCE and intentionally buried (as indicated by the systematic layers of the fill material and the material the fill contains, including flint tools and waste, animal and plant remains) circa 8000 BCE. The older Enclosures (A, B, C, and D) belong to Schmidt’s “Layer III.” Overlying Layer III is the younger Layer II, which contains smaller pillars and structures, and may date to the same period as the Neolithic site of Nevali Çori, an area northwest of Göbekli Tepe and similar in many respects to the Layer II period at Göbekli Tepe. Nevali Çori was excavated in the 1990s, but has since been flooded as a result of the Atatürk Dam built on the Euphrates River. Nevali Çori and Layer II of Göbekli Tepe may date to the second half of the ninth millennium BCE. In the catalog to accompany a 2007 exhibit at the Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (Die ältesten Monumente der Menschheit. Vor 12.000 Jahren in Anatolien, Stuttgart: Konrad Theiss, 2007), the earlier material at Göbekli Tepe, that of Layer III, is referred to 9500-8800 BCE whereas the material from Layer II is referred to 8800-8000 BCE and material from Nevali Çori is dated to circa 8500-7900 BCE. Prof. Schmidt suggested that some of the carved depressions and gouges, for instance on the tops of pillars, may date to a time when the site was buried but still remembered as an important or holy site, and people came to partake of the energy of the site. As Veysí Yildiz, son of the local landowner, explained, even before the archaeological remains were discovered at Göbekli Tepe, the area was held in reverence (stone-covered graves are found on the top of the mound to this day).

8. Quoted by Patrick Symmes in Newsweek [see note 5.].

9. Patrick Symmes [see note 5.]

10. Giulio Magli, “On the possible discovery of precessional effects in ancient astronomy,” article from 2004 posted at: http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0407/0407108.pdf (Accessed 17 June 2010); Giulio Magli, Mysteries and Discoveries of Archaeoastronomy: From Giza to Easter Island, New York: Copernicus Books, 2009.

11. See for instance, J. Norman Lockyer, The Dawn of Astronomy, New York: Macmillan, 1894 (reprinted, with a preface by Giorgio de Santillana, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1964); Giorgio de Santillana and Hertha von Dechend, Hamlet’s Mill: An Essay on Myth and the Frame of Time, Boston: Gambit, 1969.

12. The main, and older, portion of Göbekli Tepe under discussion in this article belongs to Schmidt’s Layer III; the younger and smaller pillars and structures belong to Schmidt’s Layer II [see note 7.].

13. These measurements are only approximate, and are based on the plan of Göbekli Tepe on page 186 of Peters and Schmidt, 2004 [note 5.].

14. Alignments discussed here were determined using the computer program “Starry Night Pro 4.5” (Toronto: Space Holding Company, 2003).

15. Christopher Seddon, “Ice Age Star Maps?” article dated 1 January 2008, posted atwww.christopherseddon.com/2008/01/ice-age-star-maps.html (Accessed 5 June 2010); Gary D. Thompson, “Paleolithic European Constellations – star maps in Lascaux cave in France 16,500-13,000 B.C.”, article dated 2001-2007, posted at: www.mazzaroth.com/ChapterOne/LascauxCave.htm (Accessed 5 June 2010); David Whitehouse, “Ice Age star map discovered”, article dated 9 August 2000, posted at:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/871930.stm (Accessed 5 June 2010).

16. David Whitehouse, “ ‘Oldest star chart’ found”, article dated 21 January 2003, posted at:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2679675.stm (Accessed 5 June 2010).

17. Robert M. Schoch, “An Ancient Warning, A Global Message, From the End of the Last Ice Age”, New Dawn 121, 15-22 (July-August 2010).

18. Anthony L. Peratt, “Characteristics for the Occurrence of a High-Current, Z-Pinch Aurora as Recorded in Antiquity”, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Transactions on Plasma Science, vol. 31, no. 6, 1192-1214 (December 2003); Anthony L. Peratt, John McGovern, Alfred H. Qöyawayma, Marinus Anthony Van der Sluijs, and Mathias G. Peratt, “Characteristics for the Occurrence of a High-Current, Z-Pinch Aurora as Recorded in Antiquity Part II: Directionality and Source”, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Transactions on Plasma Science, vol. 35, no. 4, 778-807 (August 2007); A. L. Peratt and W. F. Yao, “Evidence for an Intense Solar Outburst in Prehistory”, Physica Scripta (The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences), 13 pages (December 2008).

19. See note 17.

ROBERT M. SCHOCH, Ph.D., is renowned for his work on re-dating the Great Sphinx. Based on his geological studies, he determined that the Sphinx’s origins date prior to dynastic times. He has also focused his attention on the Great Pyramid and various other temples and tombs in Egypt, as well as studying similar structures around the world. Dr. Schoch is an author and coauthor of both technical and popular books, including the trilogy with R. A. McNally: Voices of the Rocks: A Scientist Looks at Catastrophes and Ancient Civilizations(1999), Voyages of the Pyramid Builders: The True Origins of the Pyramids from Lost Egypt to Ancient America (2003), and Pyramid Quest: Secrets of the Great Pyramid and the Dawn of Civilization (2005). Website: www.robertschoch.com

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