Mystery of the Mummy from KV55: Dr. Zahi Hawass

Akhenaten

Akhenaten, Egypt’s first and only monotheistic Pharaoh, has intrigued Egyptologists for centuries. Has the Egyptian Mummy Project finally found his mummy?

The Valley of the Kings, on the west bank of the Nile across from the ancient city of Thebes, is famous as the final resting place of the pharaohs of the New Kingdom — Egypt’s “Golden Age.” There are 63 known tombs in the valley, of which 26 belonged to kings. Beginning with the great female pharaoh Hatshepsut, or perhaps her father Thutmose I, almost all of the rulers of the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth dynasties built their tombs in this silent valley.

Only one king from this period, Amenhotep IV or Akhenaten, is known to have chosen a different burial site. Akhenaten rejected the worship of Amun, the principal state god of his forefathers, in favor of the sun disk, the Aten. He abandoned Thebes, then the religious capital of Egypt, and moved his government to a virgin site in Middle Egypt known today as El-Amarna; it was near this new capital city that he had his final resting place prepared.

Akhenaten’s tomb is similar in some ways to those built in the Valley of the Kings; it consists of a number of chambers and passages cut deep into the limestone cliffs of a remote valley. It is decorated, however, with unique scenes connected with the worship of the sun-god Aten, and with images of the royal family. Akhenaten’s beautiful wife, Queen Nefertiti, figures prominently in his tomb decorations, as in much of the art of the Amarna period. Although Akhenaten’s tomb at El-Amarna was never completely finished, there is little doubt that the king was buried there.

After Akhenaten’s death, Egypt returned to the worship of the old gods, and the name and image of Akhenaten were erased from his monuments in an effort to wipe out the memory of his ‘heretical’ reign.
In January 1907, the British archaeologist Edward Ayrton discovered another tomb in the Valley of the Kings. This tomb, KV55, is located just to the south of the tomb of Ramesses IX, very close to the famous tomb of Tutankhamun. KV55 is small, uninscribed and undecorated, but despite its simplicity it has great historical value, because it is also connected with the royal family of El-Amarna.

A flight of 21 stairs leads down to the entrance, which Ayrton found blocked with limestone. Although the blocking may have been opened and then resealed in ancient times, the excavators found that it was still stamped with the necropolis seal, a jackal atop nine bows representing the traditional enemies of Egypt. Beyond the entrance lay a corridor, partially filled with pieces of limestone, leading to a rectangular burial chamber containing a gilded and inlaid wooden coffin. Inside this coffin rested a badly decayed mummy, which had been reduced to little more than a skeleton. The lower three quarters of the coffin’s gilded mask had been ripped away and the cartouches (oval rings containing royal names) that once identified the owner were removed, leaving the remains inside both faceless and nameless. The identity of the mummy found in KV55 is one of Egyptology’s most enduring mysteries.

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The newly renovated Amarna room at the Egyptian museum in Cairo. (Photo by Mohamed Megahed)

The contents of KV55 offer some clues to who the mystery mummy might have been. Although the tomb had been badly damaged over the centuries by floods that periodically inundate the Valley of the Kings, many intriguing artifacts were found inside. Apart from the coffin containing the mysterious mummy, the most spectacular objects were panels from a gilded wooden shrine that had been built to protect the sarcophagus of Queen Tiye, the mother of Akhenaten. Originally, the shrine had borne the name and image of Akhenaten along with that of the queen, but these were erased in ancient times.

Other objects from KV55 included small clay sealings bearing the name of Tiye’s husband Amenhotep III, and Tutankhamun, who may have been her grandson. There were also vessels of stone, glass and pottery, along with a few pieces of jewelry, inscribed with the names of Tiye, Amenhotep III and one of Amenhotep III’s daughters, Princess Sitamun. Four ‘magical bricks’ made of mud were also found in the tomb, stamped with the name of Akhenaten himself. A beautiful set of calcite canopic jars made for Akhenaten’s secondary wife Kiya rested in a niche carved into the southern wall of the burial chamber.

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The Shrine of Queen Tiye. (Photo by Mohamed Megahed)

The cartouches on the coffin might once have held the key to the identity of the KV55 mummy. Even without them, however, many scholars have felt that the remaining inscriptions, which include titles and epithets, might reveal the identity of the coffin’s owner. The great linguist Sir Alan Gardiner argued that the titles showed that the coffin had been made for Akhenaten, and that no one else could have been buried in it. Other scholars, however, have noted that the inscriptions were altered at some point, and it has been suggested that the coffin’s occupant might not be its original owner. The French scholar Georges Daressy thought that it might originally have been made for Queen Tiye, and then altered for Smenkhkare, a mysterious successor of Akhenaten who ruled Egypt for only a short time. Another possibility is that it was made for Smenkhkare during a time when he and Akhenaten ruled together as pharaohs, and then altered when he took the throne as sole ruler.
The mystery of the coffin is made even deeper by the fact that part of it was stolen from the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. While its lid is mostly intact, the wood of the lower part had decayed to the point that nothing was left except the gold foil and glass and stone inlay that had covered its surface. The foil and inlay were taken from the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, and eventually resurfaced at the Museum of Egyptian Art in Munich, Germany. The foil and inlay were recently returned to Cairo, but there are still rumors that pieces of the gold foil from the coffin are still hidden away in storage, in museums outside of Egypt. I do not understand how any museum could purchase an artifact that they knew had been stolen from another!

Gardiner’s claim that the inscriptions on the coffin could only have referred to Akhenaten, together with the presence of the ‘heretic’ pharaoh’s name on other artifacts in KV55, convinced many scholars that this mysterious king had been brought to Thebes for reburial after his original tomb at El-Amarna was desecrated. The bones belong to a male, with a highly elongated skull. This trait is found in artistic representations of Akhenaten and his family, and can also be seen in the mummy of Tutankhamun, who may have been Akhenaten’s son. In addition, the KV55 mummy shares a blood type with the golden king; studies have indicated that the remains from the Amarna Cache belonged to an individual closely related to Tutankhamun. Taken together, the clues lead to the seemingly inevitable conclusion that the KV55 mummy is Akhenaten.
Most previous forensic studies have concluded that the skeleton belonged to a man who died in his early 20s, or at the latest about 35. Historical sources indicate that Akhenaten must have been well over 30 at his death. The majority of Egyptologists, therefore, are inclined to believe that the KV55 mummy is that of Smenkhkare, who may have been an older brother or even the father of Tutankhamun. The identification of the mummy as Smenkhkare, however, poses problems of its own. Little is known about this short-lived king..

Re-opening the Case
As part of the Supreme Council of Antiquities’ ongoing Egyptian Mummy Project, we decided to CT scan the KV55 skeleton in the hope of discovering new information that might shed light on the debate. Our forensic team has studied a number of mummies, and made many exciting discoveries. Our most recent work resulted in the identification of the mummy of Queen Hatshepsut.

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Dr. Hawass inspects the KV 55 mummy before its CT scan

When we brought the remains from KV 55 out, it was the first time that I had actually seen them. It was immediately clear to me that the skull and the other bones are in very bad condition. Dr. Hani Abdel Rahman operated the equipment, and our gifted radiologist Dr. Ashraf Selim worked with us to interpret the results.
Our CT scan put Akhenaten squarely back in the running for the identity of the mummy from KV55. Our team was able to determine that the mummy may have been older at death than anyone had previously thought. Dr. Selim noted that the spine showed, in addition to slight scoliosis, significant degenerative changes associated with age. He said that although it is difficult to determine the age of an individual from bones alone, he might put the mummy’s age as high as 60. The jury is still out, but it is certainly tempting to think that Akhenaten has finally been found.

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Scans of Tutankhamun’s mummy (left) and the bones from KV 55 seem to show similar elongated shape

Akhenaten, Nefertiti and the Amarna period have received a great deal of attention in recent years. One of the main reasons for this continued interest is that I have requested the loan to Egypt of the head of Nefertiti in the collection of the Egyptian Museum in Berlin. So far, the Berlin museum has not agreed to our request to bring the head to Egypt for three months as part of an exhibition to celebrate the opening in 2010 of the Akhenaten Museum in Minya. I do believe that Egypt’s people have the right to see this beautiful sculpture — a vital part of their heritage and identity — in person.

In the meantime, the wonderful artifacts in the newly renovated Amarna room at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo are reminders of the achievements of this period. The shrine of Queen Tiye and the lid of the coffin from KV55 adorn this gallery. A quartzite bust of Nefertiti, perhaps even more beautiful than the painted limestone bust in Berlin, also offers a glimpse of the splendor of the Amarna age. You can also see the gold foil and inlay from the bottom part of the KV55 coffin, mounted on a plexiglass base to show how they were arranged on the original coffin.

My friend Mark Linz, the head of the American University in Cairo Press, told me that he felt that the renovated Amarna room is amazing and unique, adding that he hopes that it will bring the glory of the Amarna period to life and tell people the story of Akhenaten, the first king to believe in a single god.
The Valley of the Kings still holds many mysteries. This coming year, we will begin DNA studies of the mummy from KV55, along with those of Tutankhamun and others, with hopes that DNA evidence will add even more to our understanding of this period.

We will also embark on the first archaeological expedition in the valley ever to be conducted by an all-Egyptian team. It seems unbelievable that up to this point, every excavation in the Valley of the Kings has been the work of foreign scholars. We are working right now to the north of the tomb of Merenptah, the son and successor of Ramesses II. I truly believe that the tomb of Ramesses VIII may be located in this area. It is possible that even as you read this article, you will hear the announcement of a major discovery in the valley.

There are still more royal tombs yet undiscovered. The tomb of Amenhotep I, for example, is unknown, although it may lie in the area of Deir el-Bahri. There are also many mummies that have never been identified: The remains of Nefertiti, Tutankhamun’s wife Ankhsenamun and many others may still await discovery or identification.
The sand and rocks of the Valley of the Kings hide treasure, both in the form of gold and in the form of information that can help us to reconstruct history. I hope that our new excavations will produce great stories, bringing the thrill of discovery and maybe even tales of the curse of the pharaohs, to the world. I am sure that the Valley of the Kings will reveal some of its mysteries to us — I can feel it, and I can see it in my mind’s eye. Do not laugh… I know that this is true!*

 

Credit: source – http://www.guardians.net/hawass/articles

Also see www.drhawass.com/wp/

Sunken ‘Alien Spacecraft’ under Baltic Sea still baffles experts, 5 years after discovery

The team that discovered what is today referred to as the Baltic Sea Anomaly in 2011, point out that after five years, no one has been able to identify the object which causes electronic equipment in its vicinity to malfunction.


 

Artist's impression of the anomaly by talented German artist Hauke Vagt - http://vaghauk.deviantart.com/

Artist’s impression of the anomaly by talented German artist Hauke Vagt

 
This article first appeared on Ancient Code.

It turns out that there is a mysterious sunken object located at the bottom of the ocean which ever since its discovery, has baffled both experts and marine explorers. The object which bears resemblance to the legendary spaceship from Star Wars: the Millennium Falcon, is called the ‘Baltic Sea Anomaly.’ It was found by underwater explorer research group called Ocean X Team in 2011 at a depth of 91 meters. The team led by captain Peter Lindberg and co-researcher Dennis Asberg noticed the mysterious object and what appear to be drag marks behind it using side-scan sonar equipment.

However, everything was fine until the crew which found the object reported electronic malfunctions while in the vicinity of the sunken object.

“Anything electric out there, and the satellite phone as well, stopped working when we were above the object,” Professional diver Stefan Hogerborn, part of the Ocean X team, said.

“And then when we got away about 200 metres, it turned on again, and when we got back over the object it didn’t work.”

The mysterious ‘Sunken UFO’ is sixty-one meters wide and measures approximately 8 meters in height. The mysterious spherical shape of the object has led people around the world to speculate what it might be, ever since its discovery, theories ranging from a giant mushroom to sunken Russian ship to an alien spaceship have been proposed by millions of people around the world.


One of the many sonar images which defy explanation due to the unnaturally geometric construction.


The mystery surrounding the enigmatic object at the bottom od the Baltic Sea deepened when geologist Steve Weiner said that according to his tests, the object WAS NOT a geological formation –suggesting that the structure was in fact made from “metals which nature could not reproduce itself.”

According to Volker Bruchert, an associate professor of geology at Stockholm University: “My hypothesis is that this object, this structure was formed during the Ice Age many thousands of years ago,” reports Life’s Little Mysteries.com.


 



Further reports indicate that Lindberg and Asberg apparently told the website Open Minds. Tv that the samples they offered for analysis were not from the object itself but from the vicinity of the object.

The most recent update regarding the anomaly was made in 2015 when Lindberg wrote for What’s Up in The Sky saying that while they had not been to the anomaly recently, they did, however, pass over it with the side-sonar and that they could not see anything new.

Lindberg said that they are planning on visiting the object again: “We will pretty much just be able to do the same things as we did in 2012. It is not for sure yet, but since we’re involved in a new TV project, it might give us the opportunity.”

Lindberg isn’t convinced that the object is actually an ET spacecraft. In response to one question about what the object might be, Lindberg responded: “I think it is something natural, however very odd in its shape. It is tough to give an explanation what it might be exactly since different scientists have different theories.

“For example; Kyle Kingman (marine geologist) is very certain it is a paleosol, Tom Flodén (marine geologist) thinks it might be a Manganese nodule of tremendous size. Andreas Olsson (marine archaeologist) was quite certain it must be man made after seen the blueview sonar film and videos. “

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Artist’s impression of the anomaly by talented German artist Hauke Vagt

 


Sumerian Texts: Do These Tablets Reveal Secrets About Alien Life?

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Trilingual cuneiform inscription of Xerxes at Van Fortress in Turkey, written in Old Persian, Akkadian, and Elamite

In 1849, Sir Austen Henry Layard, English Archaeologist and global explorer, found himself among the ruins of ancient Bablyon in southern Mesopotamia. It was there he discovered the first pieces of what would eventually become one of Archaeology’s most controversial puzzles: Cuneiform Tablets.

Within this incredible ancient text are stories that have an uncanny resemblance to the Biblical stories of creation, deities, and even a reference to a great flood and a giant ark to survive it.

Specialists have spent decades trying to decipher these intricate symbols. One of the more fascinating aspects of cuneiform script is the evolution of the characters from the original pictogram Sumerian language to the wedge shaped strokes of Akkadian and Assyrian writing.
But the idea that this ancient civilization knew of distant star systems and had interacted with extraterrestrial life started with a controversial researcher and author named Zecharia Sitchin. His “Ancient Alien Theory” attributes the beginnings of Mesopotamian society to a race of beings known as the Annunaki, who traveled from a distant 12th planet called Nibiru.

Gods Among Us

Sumerian Texts 4 - Cylinder Seal

 

One element of the tablets that is hotly debated within archaeology circles is the nature of these Annunaki. Considered by the mainstream to be metaphors for a creation myth, the stories of the Annunaki can actually be found in other texts, specifically the book of Genesis in the Hebrew and Christian religions, but with many of the names altered or changed.

From the creation of “heaven and earth” out of “a watery abyss” to the notion of being created in a higher being’s image, and even in the familiar “Adam and Eve” and “Noah’s Ark” stories, there is no question that these stories maintain eerily similar depictions of the origins of our species. But the question is, if these tablets are older than the Bible, then what elements of these stories are myth and how much of it is true?

There is a school of thought that has concluded that not only is the planet Nibiru real, but that the Annunaki were a powerful race of extraterrestrials with the capacity for genetic experimentation and manipulation. One of the more compelling arguments for this is the fact that science has recently revealed that there probably was a global catastrophic flood that took place about 10,000 years ago. This could account for a major loss of human population and could have essentially hit the reset button on civilization as human beings were forced to start over from scratch. Was there an “Ark” or ship of some kind that was able to save a small percentage of the population, to later rebuild society? If so, was this simply a metaphor for an alien spaceship or an actual wooden boat? According to the followers of Sitchin’s school of thought, if these stories were metaphors, it was for the technology used by these powerful beings.

So Where are They Now?

But the question remains, “If our species was the result of genetic experimentation by alien life, where are they now?”
Nearly 31,000 of these ancient clay tablets are now housed in the British Museum, most of which still have yet to be translated. Many of these texts are fragmented and incomplete, making context difficult to piece together at times.

Sumerian Blog 3 - Cyrus Cylinder

What’s fascinating about the Cuneiform writings is that over the course of several thousand years, from the earliest form of pictograph writings to the re-interpretation of the old characters into the wedge shaped indentations of the various later Mesopotamian civilizations, the way in which the language was written changed dramatically. There isn’t one hard and fast rule for translation.

In the above image, we see an example of the wedge shaped writing, which allowed a scribe to effectively use one tool to quickly press into a soft clay tablet from right to left. As the languages evolved, so to did the writing system, and between 4,000 BC and 500 BC the meanings of words changed to reflect the influence of the Semitic people that conquered Mesopotamia. In the original pictograph form any character could have various meanings depending on context. Over time, the writing shifted increasingly and the number of characters was reduced from over 1,500 symbols to about 600 signs.

But Why Earth?

Sitchin held a pretty unique view regarding the reasons for the Annunaki presence here on Earth. According to his research, He concluded that these beings, “evolved after Nibiru entered the solar system and first arrived on Earth probably 450,000 years ago, looking for minerals, especially gold, which they found and mined in Africa. Sitchin states that these “gods” were the rank-and-file workers of the colonial expedition to Earth from planet Nibiru.” (wikipedia.com)

It’s a theory that has been ruled out as quite simply preposterous by academics and peer reviewed Archaeologists around the world since it was first proposed. There are many Ancient Alien theorists who refuse to consider Sitchin’s contributions due to his lack of empirical evidence and the fact that his is a translation of the tablets that many Cuneiform experts do not agree with.
However, many modern researchers believe that some of Zecharia Sitchin’s work is legitimate and could be used to help in the translation of other tablets creating a context for the names and stories of these ancient people. Among this new breed of researcher are explorers like Michael Tellinger, who claims to have found forensic evidence to support many of the unsubstantiated claims that Sitchin made in the last century. Tellinger holds that there is in fact evidence of gold mining in parts of South Africa and that some of the references in Sitchin’s translation of the Sumerian texts can be attributed to actual places there, with landmarks and megalithic structures that fit the narrative perfectly.


Sumerian Texts 2- DeitiesThe bottom line is Cuneiform experts are few and far between and there are thousands of tablets yet to be dated and deciphered in order to draw a definitive conclusion about the nature of these creation stories and historical information. Regardless of whether or not it is true, it’s a fascinating theory that we would love to explore firsthand.

Tell us what you think. Would you travel to South Africa to see the evidence for yourself? Would you be interested in learning Cuneiform to help in the deciphering of some of the most ancient texts in the world?

Join our community and be a part of the mission to find the truth.

Extraterrestrial Life, UFO’s, Human Origins and More…

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Did flesh and blood extraterrestrials visit Earth a long, long time ago? Are we really the pinnacle of creation? Could the knowledge of apparently highly advanced technology in ancient civilizations be related to ancient alien contact? And most importantly, did ancient aliens interfere with or influence human and cultural evolution? What evidence do we currently find on Earth.

At the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America (effectively Geology’s Super bowl), author, lecturer and guide, John Anthony West and his colleague, Boston University geologist and geophysicist, Dr. Robert M. Schoch delivered a seismic shock to archaeology; a shock from which it never has (and never will) recover.

All the ancient cultures built monuments that align to various star constellations. They were all aware of a much larger cycle of time. Why did they build so many megalithic monuments that track the movement of the heavens?

Every old temple in Greece is connected with other old temples, with the same distances and angles. In ancient Europe Stonehenge and other old places are all connected under the same geometrical lines. Who measured these places in the deep past? The pyramids of Teotihuacan show a model of our solar system including Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. (Pluto was discovered in 1930.)

Ancient Aliens

Although we are the product of evolution, we are at the same time decadence of some extraterrestrials. This can be clearly proven in the Lamech- scrolls one of the death sea scrolls.

Some thousands of years ago our forefathers showed their gods in cave paintings. Throughout the ages until today humans have presented their heavenly teachers in a similar way. Erich von Däniken gives the pictorial evidence from the past to the present.

Near the city of Cusco/Peru exist stone cuttings of prehistoric times. Which were impossible to made with prehistoric tools. The same is truth for the so called ruins of Puma Punku in Bolivia. Erich von Däniken debunks the archaeological explanations.

Every antique culture was expecting the return of some gods. This goes on until today. Every present religion is expecting their savior: Jesus, Buddha, the Muslim Mahadi, and the Jewish Messaja.

Learn about the latest concepts that explore the idea our solar system is binary in nature. The Mesopotamian and biblical sources present strong evidence that the orbital period of the Planet X (Nibiru) is 3,600 years. The number 3,600 was written in Sumerian as a large circle. The Sumerians called this a shar, which also meant ‘a perfect circle’ or ‘a completed
cycle’.

Want to learn more about Ancient Aliens, UFO’s, Human Origins and more?

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Come discover why LA Weekly crowned CONTACT in the DESERT “the planet’s premiere UFO conference.” As you know if you were one of the thousand plus people who attended last year, this conference is about much, much more than merely UFO sightings. It explores ancient astronauts, extraterrestrial life, human origins, crop circles, contact experiences and the increasingly urgent need for public disclosure.

The public’s interest into paranormal or non-mainstream science is becoming more and more popular. People have questions about our true origins or topics regarding UFO’s, aliens, and really have no where in mainstream science or education to explore these topics

This year’s conference will again coincide with the Perseid meteor shower, and the retreat center offers the perfect place to view this annual astronomical spectacle through the clear desert skies. Everyone had a great time last year even if you are a skeptic or a believer, there is fun for all. I personally enjoyed seeing other fellow researchers and gave us a chance to socialize with fans after the daily events.

This year’s lineup of expert speakers is truly out of this world! Come experience lectures, workshops, intensives and more with many familiar faces from The HISTORY Channel’s Ancient Aliens, GaiamTV and Coast to Coast AM including George Noory, Jason Martell, Giorgio A. Tsoukalos, Erich von Däniken, Dr. Steven Greer, David Wilcock, Nick Pope and many, many more.

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Jason Martell Present‘s Live

I will be giving a FREE lecture and a more in-depth workshop on Ancient Planet X and other well known topics. I hope to see you there!

Win Free Passes To This Conference

ENTER to WIN a PAIR OF PASSES to the 2nd annual CONTACT in the DESERT this August when many of the world’s leading experts studying earthly phenomenon of extraterrestrial origin will convene at Joshua Tree Retreat Center to explore answers to some of the greatest questions of all time.

Green On Mars

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Is NASA About To Announce Plant Life On Mars?

It would be easy to take it for granted that the atmosphere of Mars is inhospitable to sustaining life. In fact, this is generally considered to be the case—which is a good reason why NASA would be so quick to dismiss the images of the Face on Mars and the Pyramids as mere natural by-products of wind erosion. To consider that these structures were deliberately created, we have to assume that the Martian atmosphere at some point was capable of supporting life. Currently, there is a vast body of evidence emerging that suggests that this may well have been the case at some time in the past.

Primarily, scientists have been examining what is known as the Gusev crater, a huge crater with a diameter of about 160 kilometers (90 miles).  Many believe that the crater at one point was filled with water. The size and dimensions of the crater suggest that possibly a lake once stood there.

The NASA Spirit Rover landed in center of the Gusev crater in 2004. Images taken from the Rover’s panoramic camera also show a number of interesting rocks. One rock outcropping, called the “Pot of Gold,” has been thus named for its strange collection of nodules. There is also a cluster of rocks that resemble rotting loaves of bread and have therefore been dubbed the  “Rotten Rocks.”

Did NASA Discover Bacterial Life?

The Mars Express spacecraft has gathered some other remarkable information. The mission of this spacecraft was initially to analyze in detail the chemical composition of the Martian atmosphere. The atmosphere on Mars consists of 95% carbon dioxide in addition to 5% other constituents which are not entirely known. Scientists suspected that this 5% is made up of a combination water, carbon monoxide, oxygen, formaldehyde and methane. The Mars Express was equipped with an instrument known as a Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS), which is able to detect very specific molecules through an analysis of the molecule’s light absorption mode. This is known as the molecule’sspectral fingerprint.” This instrument was able to determine for certain that methane is present in the atmosphere of Mars. The next question is, where does it come from?

Unless there is a consistent source producing the methane that continually puts it out into the atmosphere, then the methane would only survive in the atmosphere for a few hundred years. This is because it oxidizes into water and carbon dioxide fairly quickly. Both water and carbon dioxide are present in the Martian atmosphere. However, since there is also still methane present, there must be some mechanism that puts it into the atmosphere on an ongoing basis.

One theory for the ongoing presence of methane involves the possibility of volcanic activity. However, so far no active volcanos have been detected on the surface of Mars. This makes it necessary to consider the other possibility—that the methane is a by-product of biological activity such as fermentation.

Taking this possibility into consideration, NASA’s pictures of the Gusev crater using the Mars Global Surveyor, and the more recent Odyssey mission using the Themis Camera reveal some other interesting data as well. As you can see here, the images taken show a dark mass that at first glance seems to have characteristics that resemble some sort of plant life.

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In 2004, the European Space Agency took its first full color image of the Gusev crater. What made the ESA image so immediately interesting was the “dark mass” features seen streaking in portions of the floor of the 90-mile-wide Crater in the NASA imaging (left). They can now be seen in true color by ESA revealed by Mars Express (right) to be various amazing shades of green.

At Gusev, if the craters in the area were indeed harboring conditions conducive to some special algae growth – primarily, by extending below the local water table — then one could easily speculate that as the algae mats within some craters grow in the Martian spring and summer, and ultimately reproduce, their spores are carried by the winds out of the craters … to form the long, sinuous streaks across the intercrater surfaces observed from orbit! The “streaks,” then, would simply be more colonies of algae from the craters … spread by algae spores surviving for a time between the crater floors.

Methane All Over Mars…..

However, deprived of crucial quantities of water and essential nutrients (which, in this scenario, would be concentrated on those crater floors), the migrating algae colonies between the craters quickly die … anddecompose. Through this process, they would inevitably release some of their bound organics – the hydrogen, carbon, etc. — back into the atmosphere … to be seen as significant quantities of methane gas.

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During 2004 observations from the ESA Mars Express spacecraft in orbit around Mars, methane was detected in its atmosphere. And even more recently, methane has been detected on Mars by three independent groups of scientists. And this could be a sign of life-indicating, methane-producing bacteria.

In 2005, the “Pot of Gold” rock outcropping was examined in more detail. The Mars Spirit Rover discovered high concentrations of magnesium iron carbonate. This is a huge discovery. Carbonate originates only in wet, neutral conditions but dissolves in acidic conditions. Therefore, the presence of carbonate indicates that the ancient water which once pooled in the Gusev crater was not acidic. Rather, it was non-acidic water and therefore highly favorable habitat for supporting life. The substantial concentration of the carbonate deposit indicates a high probability that conditions were once highly conducive to supporting life in this place.

It becomes more and more clear that the Martian atmosphere has not always been so inhospitable to sustaining life. With this information, we must take into consideration the possibility that the remarkable Face and Pyramid formations on the surface of the planet did not simply emerge through natural processes. It becomes increasingly likely that their construction was deliberate at some point in the planet’s long and mysterious history. If this is so, it begs us to consider the possibility of a connection between the Martian Face and Pyramids and certain remarkable constructions found on our own planet Earth…

City Of The Gods

City Of The Gods – Teotihuacán

Thirty miles north of Mexico City lay the ruins of an impressive ancient city. Teotihuacán, The City of the Gods, was a carefully planned city once covering eight square miles. At its height, it is believed to have had a population of around 200,000 and was far more advanced than any European city of its time. For centuries, Teotihuacán was the Mesoamerican region’s cultural, religious, political, economic, and social center. The massive temples of the Sun, the Moon, the Citadel, and the various palaces, plazas, and paved streets are said to have been built by a pre-Aymara civilization. Once again, another incredible site, the builders of which are unidentified before one considers the Anunnaki paradigm.

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According to archeologists, Teotihuacán was a vibrant metropolis and ceremonial center pre-dating the Aztecs civilization by several centuries. It must have been inhabited by thousands of people, but it is impossible to say who they were or where they came from. It is believed that its decline began suddenly around 650 AD and that by 740 AD it was completely abandoned. But no one knows why.

Though archaeologists have long been fascinated with the site, Teotihuacán’s culture and history are still largely mysterious. The civilization left massive ruins, but no trace has yet been found of a writing system and very little is known for sure about its builders, who were followed first by the Toltecs and then by the Aztecs.

Place of the Gods

The Aztecs did not live in the city, but gave the place and its major structures their current names. They considered it the “Place of the Gods” and believed it was the place where the world had been created.

It is known that ultimately the Aztecs were conquered by the Spanish. What is interesting about this fact is that many archaeologists and anthropologists agree that the Spanish were not necessarily better soldiers than the Aztecs, but that they physically resembled the Aztec’s depictions of their god Quetzalcoatl.

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Symbolized as a feathered serpent, Quetzalcoatl is also apparently an historical figure of some sort. He supposedly brought culture, mathematics, astronomy, masonry, architecture, agriculture, knowledge of herbal medicine, law, arts, metallurgy and the concept of the calendar to the Aztec people. But he is physically pictured as entirely different form the natives of this region. Rather, he is depicted as light-skinned, with a long nose and beard. The Aztecs believed that he had arrived by a boat from the east and, after imparting his wealth of knowledge, sailed away again with a promise to return one day.

Relevant to our discussion here, why would the Aztecs have created a god-like figure not out of their own image? And where did he come from? Clearly, they had acquired vast knowledge—enough to construct a remarkably advance civilization—from a creature who had come from far away. Further, he looked nothing like them, but was entirely other. When one considers facts like these, it is impossible not to at least consider the possibility of an alien helping hand all those centuries ago.

Turning back to the original inhabitants of Teotihuacán, though, and their remarkable achievements even before the Aztecs came into the picture, we must examine the incredible ruins they left behind.

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It is here, at Teotihuacán, that we find even more remarkable pyramids, mirroring those found in Egypt as well as on Mars. There are also a number of palaces and temples adorned with incredible murals and stone carvings—all of which demonstrate a high degree of sophisticated artistry and craftsmanship.

But let’s focus our attention on the remarkable pyramids, since they have such incredible, inexplicable parallels with Egypt and Cydonia. First, there is the Pyramid of the Sun, which is the largest in the Teotihuacán complex. It is the third largest pyramid on earth and it dominates the landscape of these Mesoamerican ruins.

As you can see, the pyramid is stepped rather than smooth-sided—more like the earliest Egyptian Pyramids rather than the later ones. It once stood 210 feet high and 650 feet square. There was a wooden temple perched upon the top of the pyramid, looking out over the vast city below.

Pyramid Similarities Match Giza

It is very interesting to note some of the similarities between The Pyramid of the Sun and the Great Pyramid of Giza. Considering their vast geographical distance from one another, it is revealing to examine the relationship between the measurements of each one.

First of all, they are nearly equal in their base perimeter measurements. Also, the Pyramid of the Sun is just about exactly half the height of the Great Pyramid. It’s also clear that the ratio of each of their heights to the perimeters of their bases are both based on the mathematical ratio pi. While the base perimeter of the Pyramid of the Sun is 4pi times its height, the Great pyramid of Giza’s base perimeter is 2pi times its height. Obviously, whoever constructed these pyramids had a similar advanced knowledge of geometry and sophisticated mathematics. Each of these builders also applied their knowledge to constructing remarkable similar pyramids—located at a massive distance from one another. It is impossible not to suspect some common factor here, an architect perhaps linking these two radically different civilizations.

There is another remarkable feature of the all the pyramids at Teotihuacán. Many of them contain a very thick layer of mica, which is definitely not to be found in the area. The closest source location for mica is Brazil, in fact—which is more than 2,000 miles away! Mica is a very delicate substance—flakey in texture, almost powdery. Yet massive amounts of it are to be found in the pyramids here, and they could only have been brought in large quantities from this great distance, supposedly in an era pre-dating the use of wheeled vehicles. How could it have traveled so far?

It’s also noteworthy that the mica was used as an inner layer of these pyramids—that is, it is not visible from the outside. Therefore, its application must have been practical rather than aesthetic. Today, we know to use mica as an insulating substance in electronic and electrical devices. Was it being used for the same purpose in these ancient pyramids? If so, how did these mysterious ancients have the knowledge of its insulating powers?

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City Built As Ancient Mathematical Grid

Another remarkable thing about Teotihuacán is the layout of the city. It turns out to be a grid, clearly, offset by about 15.5 degrees from the cardinal points. The main avenue, known as the Street of the Dead, runs from 15º.5 east of north to 15º.5 west of south. The Pyramid of the Sun is oriented north of due west by this exact same amount, making it so that this Pyramid faces directly into the point of the setting sun—on August 13th. Because of this last fact, we know that the layout of Teotihuacán being slightly off the cardinal points is not due to a “misalignment” or error in calculations. Clearly, it is laid out very deliberately.

The layout of the city suggests that it was done with an advanced knowledge of astronomy. The Pyramid of the Moon is located at one end of the Street of the Dead, and is aligned with the Pyramid of the Sun so carefully that it creates a sight line across the two, marking the meridian. This would have allowed the ancient people who built these structures to have fixed the times of noon and midnight with perfect precision.

There are many remarkable facts about this ancient city that indicate advanced mathematics and astronomy. It is difficult to imagine that many of the particulars of its construction were achieved with only observational, “naked-eye” astronomy, as it is supposed these people would have had. Is it possible, then, that they had more technology—more assistance—than we usually suppose? The precise design of the entire city and its pyramids certainly leads us to this conclusion.

An Invisible Grid Stretches Across Our Planet. What It Does Will Amaze You.

By: Adil Amarsi and Dawn Delvecchio

Ley Lines 1 - World View

Is there an invisible “Energy Grid” surrounding the planet? A grid which may hold the secret to obtaining power that can be used for good … or evil?  

Nikola Tesla once said: “If you want to find the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration.”   

Today we know that Tesla was right. Quantum physics has demonstrated that all matter, at its sub-atomic core, is actually energy. This includes both sentient life, inanimate objects and the particles of space. Matter is, in fact, more energy than it is “stuff”.

In its (seemingly) solid form, matter also emits energy, as countless studies have shown. And when it comes to matter which emits energy, none may be more important for us to understand than that of an energetic grid. A grid, many argue, which surrounds the Earth.

Why is this important? Because if the Earth emits energy along specific lines and cross-point which can be harnessed by humans, those aware of this power are at a distinct advantage over those who remain ignorant.

More than Meets the Eye

As with many “unsolved mysteries”, the notion of a grid which surrounds the Earth has polarized theorists and experts into two distinct camps: Proponents and Dismissers. While proponents argue that ample evidence exists to prove an energetic grid’s existence, dismissers categorize the theory as another fringe element popular with Conspiracy Theorists.

But even if mainstream thinkers dismiss the very existence of a grid, a closer examination indicates there could be much more here than meets the eye.

“Ley” Lines and Pre-Historic Power Centers

The lines which comprise this grid (in theory or in fact) are often referred to as “Ley Lines,” and when we study them closely, we see that humans throughout recorded history appear to have been well aware of their existence, thanks to the many ancient sites found along them.

The term “Ley” itself comes from the Anglo-Saxon, meaning ‘cleared strips of ground’ or ‘meadows’. But these lines we are referring to are primarily energetic, and exist whether the land is stripped of its ground cover or not.

All Ley Lines meet at intersecting points, forming a matrix or grid across the body of the planet. These grid points, according to proponents, are the strongest “power spots” on Earth. Apparently many of our ancestors thought so too, since sacred sites such as henges, mounds, megaliths, pyramids, famous energy vortexes, and even cathedrals are frequently located directly atop these cross-hair power spots.

In fact, mapping the grid shows us that many of the world’s most renowned sites sit atop Ley Line meeting points. Machu Picchu, the Pyramids of Giza, Easter Island, Puma Punku, Lhasa Tibet, the ancient ruins of Mohenjo Daro, Findhorn in Scotland, the Bermuda Triangle, the Arizona vortices, Angkor Wat, the Nazca Lines, numerous obelisks, and sacred domed structures around the globe all attest to the very real possibility that something beyond the visible world is involved here.

Exactly how our ancestors knew about these lines may forever remain a mystery, but what we can deduce today from our own knowledge, reveals information that can powerfully aid the planet – or deeply harm it – during these all too critical times.

Pseudoscience or Solid Platonic Fact?

According to mainstream thinking, the study of a planetary grid is considered a “pseudoscience.” However, when we look to the precise mathematics connected with this grid, then refer to the patterns and themes reflected in Sacred Geometry, a meaning beyond materialist scientific thought begins to emerge.

Plato acknowledged grids and formulated a theory of the Earth which states that the base structure of the planet evolved geometrically: from the most simple shapes to increasingly complex ones.

It’s no surprise that these shapes are today known as the “Platonic Solids” and include the following: the cube, the tetrahedron, the octahedron, the dodecahedron, and the icosahedron.

According to Plato’s theory, these energy grids around the Earth evolved through each of the shapes over time, with the more complex superimposed over its predecessor. The result is an all encompassing field which forms the energetic basis of Earth. An energy, according to Plato, which literally holds the Earth together.

Early Ley Line Identification

In 1921, Alfred Watkins, an English pioneer of photography had something he called a “Flood of Ancestral Memory” while looking at a map of the Herefordshire countryside.

Watkins noticed that numerous prehistoric places, such as standing stones, earthen burial mounds, prehistoric earthen hills, and other features fell into straight lines which stretched for miles across the country. Watkins spent many years studying these alignments, both on the ground and on maps.

He took photographs, wrote books and gave lectures. In response to his work, especially to his most important book, The Old Straight Track (1925), a group of people from across Britain formed what they called the “Straight Track Club”. This group conducted field research throughout Britain, looking for alignments of sites, and remnants of old straight tracks lying along them.

It wasn’t until the 1960s that Alfred’s research was furthered and modified by others. One of these was Tony Wedd, a former Royal Air Force Pilot. Wedd believed the Lines served an entirely different function. Namely: the “cross-hairs” of line intersections were used as UFO landing sites. Wedd’s hypothesis inspired other investigations, throughout the 1960s and on a global scale, examining the energy output along Ley Lines.

“Bucky Balls” and Vile Vortices

As it turns out, there are several different Ley Line grid maps. The variety can be attributed to different researchers throughout the 20th century. All of them, however, draw their conclusions from the fundamental geometries of the Platonic solids.

Bill Becker and Bethe Hagens, for example, have conducted extensive research on Ley Lines. Their review of the code of the Platonic Solids’ Earthly positions was based on the work of Ivan P. Sanderson. Sanderson was the first to argue that the icosahedron form was evident and at work across the planet.

Sanderson identified what he called “Vile Vortices” distributed geometrically at 12 key locations across the globe. All of these sites shared similar, mostly negative, qualities. Most famous among them are the Bermuda Triangle and the Devil’s Sea.

Becker and Hagens supported, for the most part, the planetary grid map as initially outlined by the Russian team Goncharov, Morozov and Makarov. The Team organized the grid differently than Sanderson, basing it instead on the relationship between the Great Pyramid at Giza, and the north and south axial poles.

However, Becker and Hagens believed the Russian version was incomplete. This led them to theorize and map out a new, more complex variation of an Earth grid, based on R. Buckminster Fuller’s icosahedral-based, spherical polyhedron.

Official Dismissal of Ley Lines

Even though experts like Dan Shaw, Nassim Haramein, Becker and Hagens, Sanderson and the Russians have all conducted research on Ley Lines, mainstream science does not formally acknowledge their existence or influence.

Could this be due to a more hidden agenda? One seeking to keep such knowledge from the public?

Since research into such arenas is unsupported by mainstream funding, it will be difficult to determine the full potential of Ley Lines. If indeed there are subtle energies along the Earth’s Ley Line grid, what possible ways might a conscious humanity harness this power for the greater good? Until support and research funding become available, we may never know.

If you enjoyed this Ancient Explorers article, we invite you to participate in our ongoing exploration of archaeological mysteries, ancient wisdom, and how all this ties into our ancient origins.


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Does This 400,000-Year-Old Bone Reveal The Origins Of Our Species?

Eduald Carbonell

One of the greatest clues to solving the mystery of our species’ origin was recently revealed by Archaeologists in Spain. But, it seems the discovery might raise more questions than answers. It has been a long held belief that the Neanderthals and Denisovans, two ancient species of hominid, were in a different evolutionary branch than our genetic ancestors. But this recent discovery shakes up many of our assumptions on the origins of the human species.

Sequencing Ancient DNA

In the June 6th issue of Current Biology, a group of researchers led by Catherine Hänni of Ecole Normale Supérieur in Lyon, France published their analysis of a 100,000 year old Neanderthal genome. It was the oldest DNA that had ever been sequenced.
The finding was a breakthrough because the genetic material used predates the period when Neanderthals cohabited with modern humans.
Bear in mind that the process of working with ancient DNA is one of the most challenging for a geneticist; there are so many factors that can affect an accurate sequencing of genetic material, including modern human contamination and the fact that decomposition has occurred.
This was a huge deal!

The decomposition process begins after any organism dies. This process, by nature begins breaking down the DNA as well and usually, within 100,000 years, any recognizable DNA has been broken down into (scientifically speaking) unusable organic matter.
When Archaeologists are able to secure a small piece of bone fragment or similar fossil, the DNA that can be extracted is typically damaged or in fragments and this can result in inaccurate analysis because of protein changes in the DNA strands.

Photo Credit: Javier Trueba, Madrid Scientific Films

Photo Credit: Javier Trueba, Madrid Scientific Films

Now, a new analysis of genetic material from a 400,000 year old thigh bone has shaken the foundation of our beliefs about evolution and the human genome. Thanks to breakthroughs in modern technology, researchers used a new technique for the sequence, one that they say was not even possible one year ago. Instead of the typical DNA strand we imagine, researchers were able to sequence the genetic material from the Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is only passed through a lineage through the mother.

The Pit of Bones

In the 1970’s, Archaeologists in the Atapuerca Mountains of Northern Spain discovered what would come to be known as The Pit of Bones. About 43 feet below the surface in an underground cave, the bones of a new species of ancient humanoid dubbed homo heidelbergensis were discovered and they have been studied ever since. All together it was determined that the bones of at least 28 ancient hominids have been collected from that cave along with the bones of some bears.

Though it isn’t clear whether this was some sort of burial ritual or these people had simply fallen into the pit, it was clear that these bones ranged from 350,000 years old to well over a million years old.

This strange new species of hominid obviously lived long before the Neanderthal was fully evolved.

Until this point, modern scientists have accepted it was a creature called homo erectus that predated modern Neanderthals. Even though the bones appeared to have a close resemblance to Neanderthal bones, it turns out their genetic make-up is much closer to the hominids known as the Denisovans.

Denisovans

In the Altay Mountains of southern Siberia there is a cave called Denisova. In 2008, researchers in the Altay Mountains of Southern Siberia unearthed a fossilized pinky bone that altered our ideas about the DNA of human beings. Testing at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology determined that the tiny chipped fingertip belonged to a young Denisovan girl between the age of five and seven years when she died.
This extinct species of hominid is said to have lived about 80,000 years ago and genetic traces are still found in some from East Asia and a native tribe in Papua New Guinea.

Researchers theorize the transocean migration of the Denisovan-blooded ancestors from Eurasia may have brought them to Papua New Guinea. This also means that the Denisovans lived in small numbers throughout the continent from Siberia to Southeast Asia at some point between 80,000 and 45,000 years ago.

Evolutionary geneticist Svante Pääbo, the man responsible for inventing the new DNA sequencing technique, said of Denisova, “It’s the one spot on Earth that we know of where Neanderthals, Denisovans, and modern humans all lived.”

A fascinating piece of the puzzle is that the bones from Denisovans do not look like Neanderthals or the new species found in the Pit of Bones, Homo Heidelbergensis.

So What Does it All Mean?

The 400,000 year old thigh bone that belongs to Homo heidelbergensis contains the same Mitochondrial DNA as a Denisovan.

To explain this, researchers are now considering two possibilities:
1. There are many more species of ancient humanoids than we previously believed, or
2. The bones in the Pit of Bones are the ancestors of both the Neanderthals and Denisovans.

400000 DNA 2 - melanesian

Photo Credit: Jonathan Friedlaender

If it’s the second option, theorists suggest that the Mitochondrial DNA may have been bred out of the Neanderthal species over time.

What do you think? Is there a third option? And would it surprise you to know that some of the natives in Papa New Guinea, the Melenesians, have an African or Aboriginal complexion but naturally blonde hair?

If you enjoyed this Ancient Explorers article, we invite you to participate in our ongoing exploration of archaeological mysteries, ancient wisdom, and how all this ties into our ancient origins.

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