Ancient Fourni archipelago ship graveyard reveals 45 wrecks spanning thousands of years

Painting

Ulysses and the Sirens, 1909 by Draper, Herbert James (1864-1920). Ancient mythology had many supernatural explanations for dangerous waterways.

FRESH surveys of ancient Greece’s ‘Bermuda Triangle’ have revealed 45 wrecks strewn among a remote outcrop of rocky islands. And many more may yet be found.

“These 45 shipwrecks demonstrate the truly exceptional significance of the archipelago and establishes the project as one of the most exciting currently in archeology,” says expedition leader Peter Campbell of the University of Southampton.

1Shipwreck

The keel and ballast stones belonging to one of 23 new wrecks found in the Aegean’s ‘ship graveyard’.  Picture: Vasilis Mentogianis.

The cluster of 13 islands in the eastern Aegean, known as the Fourni archipelago, surged to prominence in the archaeological world last year when 22 wrecks were found in a space of just 44 square kilometres within two weeks.

Some have been tentatively dated as being as old as 2500 years.

A second expedition in June has added a further 23 wrecks to the tally after divers scoured waters up to 65 meters deep.

Divers

A diver measures Archaic Period amphoras.  Picture: Vasilis Mentogianis.

There still much more to explore, researchers say.

“The concentration of the shipwrecks and the large area remaining to be explored leaves every indication that there are many more sites to discover,” Mr Campbell says.

Anphoras

The archipelago offered both a navigational reference and hoped-for safe-haven as it represented a trading crossroads in the ancient world.

Among the new wrecks are vessels from the Archaic period (700-480 BC) all the way through to the Early Modern Period (1750-1850 AD).

“Overall, Late Roman vessels are still the predominant type, but we see that ships were travelling past Fourni in every time period,” Mr Campbell says.

Some shipwrecks carried goods from as far as North Africa, Spain, and Italy.

The joint Greek-American expedition, the Fourni Underwater Survye, is expected to continue into 2018.*

Article Source Credit: Reported by www.News.Com.Au  (07-2016)

Do you know that if you linked together all the Inca roads…

 …it would almost wrap around the     circumference of our entire planet?

the-inca-empire

THE INCA ROAD SYSTEM WAS THE MOST EXTENSIVE AND ADVANCED TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM IN PRE-COLUMBIAN SOUTH AMERICA.

The network was based on two north-south roads with numerous branches. The best known portion of the road system is the Inca Trail to Machu Picchu.

The eastern route ran high in the puna grasslands and mountain valleys from Quito, Ecuador to Mendoza, Argentina. The western route followed the coastal plain not including in coastal deserts where it hugged the foothills.

The Inca road system linked together about 40,000 kilometres (25,000 mi) of roadway and provided access to over 3,000,000 square kilometres (1,200,000 sq mi) of territory.

When you consider that the Earth’s circumference is 40,075 km, the road network could almost encircle the entire planet!*….. Source: www.HeritageDaily.com

 

More about the Inca Engineering:

The Inca Road System 

The Inca road system formed a network known as the royal highway or qhapaq ñan, which became an invaluable part of the Inca empire, not only facilitating the movement of armies, people, and goods but also providing an important physical symbol of imperial control. Across plains, deserts, and mountains, the network connected settlements and administrative centres. Well-built and lasting, many roads included bridges, causeways, stairways, and also had small stations (chaskiwasi) and sometimes larger, more luxurious complexes (tambos) dotted along every 20 km or so, where travellers could spend the night and refresh.

2000px-Inca_roads

The Inca road system formed a network known as the royal highway or qhapaq ñan, which became an invaluable part of the Inca empire, not only facilitating the movement of armies, people, and goods but also providing an important physical symbol of imperial control. Across plains, deserts, and mountains, the network connected settlements and administrative centres. Well-built and lasting, many roads included bridges, causeways, stairways, and also had small stations (chaskiwasi) and sometimes larger, more luxurious complexes (tambos) dotted along every 20 km or so, where travellers could spend the night and refresh.

Inca Roads

<Inca road and bridge

ENGINEERING METHODS & MATERIALS

Inca roads were built without the benefit of sophisticated surveying equipment using only wooden, stone, andbronze tools. As they were built in different geographical zones using local populations, the roads are, consequently, not uniform in construction design or materials. The width of most roads varies from one to four metres, although some could be much bigger, such as the 15-metre wide highway in the Huánuco Pampa province. Sometimes there are also two or three roads constructed in parallel, especially near the larger urban centres. Flattened road beds – often raised – were usually made using packed earth, sand, or grass. The more important roads were finished with precisely arranged paving stones or cobbles. Roads were typically edged and protected with small stone walls, stone markers, wooden or cane posts, or piles of stones. Drainage was provided by frequent drains and culverts, which drew off rainwater from the road surface, channelling it either along or under the road. When crossing wetlands, roads were often supported by buttress walls or built on causeways. Bridges of stone or reeds were also constructed to cover distances in a more direct route as were large, stone, llama-friendly staircases in mountainous terrain. There was even an appointed official, the Chaka Suyuyuq, responsible for inspecting the empire’s bridges.

Generally, and despite their reputation for Roman-like long straight roads, Inca roads tended to follow natural contours as the straight stretches of road are rarely more than a few kilometres long. It is also noteworthy that Inca roads are very often more elaborate and well-constructed than was actually necessary. This attention to detail was almost certainly in order to impress travellers and conquered peoples of the superiority of Inca culture as felt by the lords of Cuzco.

Surely one of the most impressive sights and showcases for Inca engineering must have been the many rope suspension bridges which crossed perilous ravines. These were built using braids of reed or grass rope with wooden and fibre flooring. Perhaps the most famous crossed the Apurimac River near Cuzco and measured 45 metres in length. Suspension bridges were often built in pairs perhaps with one bridge for commoners and one for nobles. An alternative to such bridges was the oroya, a suspended basket which transported two or three people at a time over a greater distance than could be reached with a rope bridge. Local populations were given the responsibility of maintaining these perishable structures each year as part of their imperial tribute.

An Inca Road Rest Station

Inca test stn

ROAD USERS

The extensive reach of the road network allowed the Incas to better move armies across their territories in order to further expand the empire or maintain order within it. Trade goods and tribute from conquered peoples – both goods and people – could also be easily transported to and from the major Inca centres, typically using llama caravans and porters (there were no wheeled vehicles). Inca administrative officials also travelled along the roads in order to dispense justice or maintain records such as local agricultural production, tribute quotas, and censuses. Ordinary people were not permitted to use the roads for private purposes unless they had official permission. They also sometimes had to pay tolls for the privilege, especially at bridges.

Another interesting feature of Inca roads was the use of runners (chaski or chasquis). Moving as fast as they could, they operated in relays, passing information to a fresh runner stationed every six to nine kilometres. However, it was not only messages that were carried between population centres but also such perishable items as fresh fish and seafood for the tables of Inca nobles. With this system, information (and fish) could travel up to 240 km in a single day. Messages carried over long distances would have involved hundreds of oral exchanges, and to preserve the correct meaning of the original message, quipu – a coded assembly of strings and knots – were probably used to help the memory of the runners.

LEGACY

Many sections of the Inca road network survive today and are still used by pedestrians, especially near such sites as Machu Picchu, where large stone stairways and bridges give access to the site for modern tourists. In addition, some of the original Inca routes have had modern roads built directly over them, illustrating the skills and vision for crossing terrain and distances possessed by Inca engineers and road builders.*

 

Source Article by   – Contributor:  www.ancient.eu

 

Gateway to Ancient Greek God’s Compound Uncovered?

bronze-mask-pan

<The bronze mask of Pan discovered near Hippos is unusually large compared to other such bronze masks of the Greek God that date from the same period.

Photo Credit: Dr. Michael Eisenberg/University of Haifa

Archaeologists in northern Israel may have recently unearthed a sanctuary of the Greek god Pan in the ancient city of Hippos.

So far, excavations by the Zinman Institute of Archaeology at the University of Haifa have uncovered a monumental Roman gate, which may have led to a compound dedicated to the worship of Pan, the god of flocks and shepherds, who is depicted as half man and half goat in Greek mythology.

The new archaeological find may help researchers better understand previous discoveries in the ancient city. Last year, the archaeologists discovered a bronze mask of Pan, which is unusually large compared to other such bronze masks of the Greek God that date from the same period. The researchers had said that efforts to date the item or explain the function of the mask would be difficult.*

Note: The excavations at this site and research on the artifacts and other findings are on-going.

 

Authored By:  Kacey Deamer, Staff Writer of LiveScience.com    (6-23-2016)

 

How a Viking ended up with an English sword

Artifact-Norway-Viking-SwordWhat is it?
Sword

Culture
Viking

Date
First half of the 11th century A.D.

Material
Iron, silver, gold, silver thread, copper alloy thread

Found
Langeid, Setesdal Valley, southern Norway

Dimensions
3.08 feet long

At first the grave’s contents seemed poorer than might be expected, given that it was the largest excavated burial in the Langeid cemetery. When archaeologists dug into the coffin, they found just two fragments of silver coins, one from northern Europe, and a penny minted under the Anglo-Saxon king Æthelred II (Æthelred the Unready) in England. Yet the four postholes at the grave’s corners made it clear that it had once been roofed, a sign of the deceased’s high status. Outside the coffin, however, they soon saw something that, says excavation leader Camilla Cecilie Wenn, “made our eyes really pop” when the dirt began to fall away. On one side of the coffin was a large battle-ax, and on the other, the hilt of a three-foot-long sword that once belonged to a Viking, one whose identity might even be known.

The Viking king Canute invaded England at the beginning of the eleventh century and became king of England in A.D. 1016 when Æthelred’s sons fled. According to twelfth-century Danish chronicler Sven Aggesen, the elite force of 3,000 warriors serving under the king carried axes and swords with gilded heads and hilts, similar to the ax and sword found at Langeid. This type of weaponry is known to have been made in the British Isles, and an inscribed runestone found not far from Langeid indicates that men from this region fought with Canute, probably in the English campaigns of A.D. 1013–1014. “We believe it’s probable that the owner of the sword and the ax was a warrior in King Canute’s army who may have acquired the sword in England,” says Wenn. “The link to the British Isles is also well supported by the grave’s Anglo-Saxon coin, which is the only one unearthed in the cemetery.”*

 

Source: ArchaeologyMagazine.com

‘Wand’ discovered in cave is found to be 6,000 years old!

1_Lead_wand

The lead object was the first of its kind found in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

A nondescript cave in Israel was the location of a major discovery recently: a lead and wood artifact believed to be the earliest example of smelted lead in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

The object, which looks like a wand or small dagger, was found attached to an intact wooden shaft during a field survey at Ashalim Cave led by Naama Yahalom-Mack, a postdoctoral student from The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Findings were published in the scientific journal Plos One.

wands<A close-up of the Ashalim Cave lead object. (Photo: Yahalom-Mack et al)

Lead is a soft, malleable metal with a bluish-white color and is rarely found on its own, meaning it has to be extracted from the ore that contains it through a process called smelting – or by heating and melting it.

The researchers dated the wand to the late 5th millennium BCE – or the Late Copper Age. Smelted lead had never before been dated to this time period, according to Yahalom-Mack.

Consisting of a 22.4 cm long wooden shaft and a perforated lead object still attached to it, the wand is the only pre-4th millennium lead artifact ever uncovered in the region, and sheds new light on the early metallurgy of lead, its sources and its technological role at the formative stages of metal production, Yahalom-Mack said.

3_Lead_wand

Archaeologists hover over the entrance to the cave where the lead wand was found. (Photo: Yahalom-Mack et al)
Lead doesn’t tend to occur naturally in the area in which the wand was found, so after discovering the artifact, the researchers studied its isotopes (variations on an element) to determine its origin. An analysis showed that the artifact “was … likely smelted from lead ores originating” in Anatolia, Turkey.

Yahalom-Mack said the discovery is important “to the question of the development of silver extraction from lead ores: was regular lead smelting from lead-rich ores performed during the 5th millennium BCE, a process that might have resulted in the discovery of silver few hundreds of years later?”

4_lead_wand

Microscopic images of the sampled area where the lead wand was found. (Photo: Yahalom-Mack et al.)

 

Source:  Article by Zach Ponte  – Contributor to  Fromthegrapevine.com

3,700-year-old Egyptian scarab seal found by Israeli birdwatcher!

Scarab_3700 years old

The seal, found near the Tel Dor archeological site near Mount Carmel, belonged to a senior Egyptian official of the Thirteenth Pharaonic dynasty dating as far back as the 18th century BCE.

An Israeli amateur birdwatcher accidentally discovered an ancient scarab seal belonging to a senior Egyptian official of the Thirteenth Pharaonic dynasty dating as far back as the 18th century BCE, researchers at Haifa University announced on Sunday.

Alexander Ternopolsky was birdwatching near the Tel Dor archaeological site on Israel’s Carmel Coast, where an ongoing excavation of the ancient port city of Dor is taking place, when he happened upon the incredible find. Ternopolsky immediately handed it over to the archeological team working at the site.

According to Haifa University, the coastal city of Dor at the foot of Mt. Carmel was a key port city for thousands of years. Until the Romans built Caesarea, Dor was the most important commercial center in area and a trading base for spices, resin, and other commodities that were highly valued by the ancient Egyptians. The city was even mentioned in several ancient Egyptian documents dating back 3500 years.
A preliminary study concluded that the stone scarab is engraved with the name of its owner as well as his position. The description of the scarab owner’s position includes such phrases such as “overseer of the treasury,” “bearer of the seal,” and more, but the owner’s name has not yet been deciphered.

“The scarab must have belonged to a very senior figure in the kingdom, probably the viceroy responsible for the royal treasury,” explains Prof. Ayelet Gilboa from the Department of Archeology at Haifa University, who is heading the excavations at Tel Dor together with Prof. Ilan Sharon from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.

The excavators suggest several theories explaining how the scarab might have reached Tel Dor. The first is that either a representative of the viceroy or the viceroy himself may have come to Dor.

Another option is that the scarab arrived at Dor at a much later stage, perhaps even during the Roman period, when there was demand for such Egyptian “antiques.”

Credit and Sources: Michael Zeff/TPS – Orig.: Tazpit News Agency

The Legend of the Rollright Stones

rollright1

The weirdly gnarled and misshapen complex of the Rollright Stones, lying 28 kilometers north-west of Oxford, is perhaps associated with more folklore than any other British prehistoric site. Legend has it that a minor king, out marching with his army, met a witch who said he would become the king of all England if, after taking just seven strides, he could see the village of Long Compton up ahead. When the king tried, a mound magically rose up and blocked his view and the witch cackled out a curse, turning the men to stone and herself into a tree. Interestingly, archaeologists in the 1980s found that the natural ridge that cuts out the view of Long Compton from the site does in fact harbor a prehistoric burial mound.

King stone

The King Stone

A further tradition claimed that if the tree was cut when in blossom, it would bleed, and the King Stone would turn its head. Other Rollright legends say that the stones called the King’s Men go down to drink at a nearby stream at midnight. Fairies are said to come out of a hole in the ground and dance around the King Stone. In the past this stone was also associated with a fertility tradition – at night, young women would touch it with their breasts. At the group of stones known as the Whispering Knights, women were able to put their ears to the stones and hear the whispered answers to their questions.

rollright stonesFor centuries people have claimed that stones at prehistoric sites have magical powers and can heal, move, or even cause electric shocks. After touching one of the Rollright Stones in 1919, a Mrs. L. Chapman reported that “my hand and arm began to tingle badly and I felt as though I was being pushed away.” In 1980 another visitor to the site “saw a pool of diffuse white light which seemed to be coming out of the ground; it rose a bit above the stones and then tapered off.” While local tradition associates such lights with fairies, the Rollright Stones have also been the subject of serious research.

A British group called the Dragon Project Trust has investigated the Rollright Stones as part of its continuing study of reports of strange energy effects at prehistoric sites. Formed in 1977, this group of enthusiasts includes volunteers from all walks of life, such as surveyors, teachers, artists, geochemists, physicists and electronics experts. At the Rollright site the Dragon Project team found that some stones pulsated with low-level magnetism that could be detected only with special instruments. They also monitored ultrasound – high-frequency sound beyond the human hearing. In January 1989 the team found that a metre-deep band around one stone emitted signals at 37 kilohertz (37,000 cycles per second), but they stopped as mysteriously as they had begun.

Researchers have also found unexplained ground-level radio signals at Bronze Age burial mounds in Ireland’s Wicklow Mountains. And ghostly voices have been recorded inside another burial chamber in the Loughcrew Hills in Ireland. Did such phenomena influence prehistoric people in choosing their sacred places? Old stone structures throughout the world are frequently found near surface faults in the earth, where there can be electrical, magnetic and gravitational anomalies. At such places the mysterious balls of light known as earth lights often appear.

The Dragon Project team also studied the site of Carn Ingli, in the Welsh Preseli Hills, after a bizarre experience there was reported. In 1987, when a young couple was driving through the area, the woman nearly lost consciousness as they passed Carn Ingli, with its rugged sides terraced by the remains of ancient stone walls. After the couple left the area, the woman’s symptoms abated.

Carn Ingli

Carn Ingli

When investigating the 1987 Carn Ingli incident, the Dragon Project team were surprised to discover a magnetic anomaly on the peak that caused a compass needle to spin. Magnetism is known to affect the brain. Could this have caused the strange sensation experienced by the young woman? It may also help to explain the visions of angels that Saint Brynach, a sixth-century holy man, is said to have seen at Carn Ingli, a name meaning “Mound of Angels.”

*This article first appeared on alansmysteriousworld.wordpress.com and is written by The Writers Drawer.

Cryptographic Art: The Sine Wave in Ancient Context

1801353_10152242300255900_1035372373_o

As the Earth rotates on it’s axis, the Equator remains aligned, but the line of ancient sites describes a sine wave as a result of it’s tilt relative to the Equator. The line of the ecliptic may be observed describing a similar wave by spinning a globe that has a line of the ecliptic. The wave may also be visualized by drawing the line of ancient sites on a flat projection of the Earth.

The wavelength is equal to the circumference of the Earth. The amplitude of this wave, measured from the middle of the wave (the equator), is 30° of latitude. Recall that the 30th parallels are ½ of the height of each hemisphere, or ½ of the radius of the Earth.

Many ancient civilizations provided evidence they knew precisely how to create realistic statues and art. So why did some choose to purposely distort their art with what appears to be unrealistic scenes? Graham Hancock considers that maybe there’s a scientific formula embedded within these different scenes. Just as Leonardo da Vinci was said to have hidden codes within his work maybe the ancient people used the same method. Only to them it wasn’t a code but a common knowledge that was easy for them to understand. Could this be how they passed along their knowledge much the same way we use text books and websites today?

CarrD2-CarrD2-1

30th parallels

The meticulous measuring of the Giza complex by Petrie, Smyth and others, has illuminated the extent of the geometry at Giza, but there is a simple geometry behind the Giza layout which returns us again and again to 30.

It can be seen that the 8 x 8 grid used for the layout of the Giza pyramids (above, left) simultaneously reveals the 5:8 ratio between the corners of the three pyramids (which are aligned to Heliopolis), otherwise known as the ‘sacred mean’, and a symbolically relevant geometric figure. and including sufficient geometry to create 12 equal divisions of 30°, as seen both between pyramids and in the actual location of Giza (on the 30th parallel).

pyrami1a

the grand circle

Just as every point along the equator is 6,215 miles from both the North and South Poles, every point along this circle of ancient sites is 6,215 miles from two axis points on Earth.

The axis point in the Northern Hemisphere, shown here in the center, is near the Southeastern coast of Alaska, at 59° 42′ N 139° 17′ W, 25 miles Northeast of Yakutat.

Many ancient sites such as the Ziggurut of Ur, the Pyramids of Giza, and the cities of Petra and Persepolis lie along this ‘grand circle’

1662126_10152242382050900_1163001316_n

Music in Geometry

…We are apparently able to tune in our attention at specific proportional frequencies something like a strobe light freezing dancers in motion in order to recognize coherent paths through harmonic interference. Following this hypothesis, cognition of spatial scales and melodies must be a function of how fast we sample a standing wave. Temporal coherence in music based on sample frequency is therefore required prior to the recognition of spatial harmonic geometry. Since recognition of Φ and the Fibonacci scales has been determined to be the source of temporal coherence, then harmonic damping is a prerequisite for spatial coherence and formation of harmonic structures. Simply put – time before space.

1970588_10152242495050900_726202335_n

Angkor Wat is said to be the largest religious temple in the world. It may be true legends hold a key to the explanation of the endless scenes on its walls but what if important parts of the story were lost in time? From the beginning it was easy for me to recognize “The Churning of the Milky Ocean” is of high sophistication and importance. At the top of the scene female figures appear to be dancing or maybe flying through the air. When tracing a line from one figures head to the next the entire layout is in a wave pattern as seen above. If the direction the figures are moving is an indication of which way the waves are traveling they would be moving from the center out just as described in the Mayan scene. I see this repeated in many other cultures as well which indicate it’s of a global interest.

CarrD2-1

On a larger scale when observing the entire layout I see a description of something far more advanced. This scene can be used as a calendar but also seems to describe the different forces that pull the Earth through its orbit.

CarrD2-3

These images are just a few of the numerous examples Graham Hancock has noticed that depict wave patterns within ancient scenes.

Could they hold the key to a lost science or could they simply be religious and tell stories of gods? One thing is for certain. The ancient people, no matter where they resided, all seem to have certain aspects which can be compared to one another. There are simply too many coincidences.

Read Full Article Here