The Legend of the Rollright Stones

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The weirdly gnarled and misshapen complex of the Rollright Stones, lying 28 kilometers north-west of Oxford, is perhaps associated with more folklore than any other British prehistoric site. Legend has it that a minor king, out marching with his army, met a witch who said he would become the king of all England if, after taking just seven strides, he could see the village of Long Compton up ahead. When the king tried, a mound magically rose up and blocked his view and the witch cackled out a curse, turning the men to stone and herself into a tree. Interestingly, archaeologists in the 1980s found that the natural ridge that cuts out the view of Long Compton from the site does in fact harbor a prehistoric burial mound.

King stone

The King Stone

A further tradition claimed that if the tree was cut when in blossom, it would bleed, and the King Stone would turn its head. Other Rollright legends say that the stones called the King’s Men go down to drink at a nearby stream at midnight. Fairies are said to come out of a hole in the ground and dance around the King Stone. In the past this stone was also associated with a fertility tradition – at night, young women would touch it with their breasts. At the group of stones known as the Whispering Knights, women were able to put their ears to the stones and hear the whispered answers to their questions.

rollright stonesFor centuries people have claimed that stones at prehistoric sites have magical powers and can heal, move, or even cause electric shocks. After touching one of the Rollright Stones in 1919, a Mrs. L. Chapman reported that “my hand and arm began to tingle badly and I felt as though I was being pushed away.” In 1980 another visitor to the site “saw a pool of diffuse white light which seemed to be coming out of the ground; it rose a bit above the stones and then tapered off.” While local tradition associates such lights with fairies, the Rollright Stones have also been the subject of serious research.

A British group called the Dragon Project Trust has investigated the Rollright Stones as part of its continuing study of reports of strange energy effects at prehistoric sites. Formed in 1977, this group of enthusiasts includes volunteers from all walks of life, such as surveyors, teachers, artists, geochemists, physicists and electronics experts. At the Rollright site the Dragon Project team found that some stones pulsated with low-level magnetism that could be detected only with special instruments. They also monitored ultrasound – high-frequency sound beyond the human hearing. In January 1989 the team found that a metre-deep band around one stone emitted signals at 37 kilohertz (37,000 cycles per second), but they stopped as mysteriously as they had begun.

Researchers have also found unexplained ground-level radio signals at Bronze Age burial mounds in Ireland’s Wicklow Mountains. And ghostly voices have been recorded inside another burial chamber in the Loughcrew Hills in Ireland. Did such phenomena influence prehistoric people in choosing their sacred places? Old stone structures throughout the world are frequently found near surface faults in the earth, where there can be electrical, magnetic and gravitational anomalies. At such places the mysterious balls of light known as earth lights often appear.

The Dragon Project team also studied the site of Carn Ingli, in the Welsh Preseli Hills, after a bizarre experience there was reported. In 1987, when a young couple was driving through the area, the woman nearly lost consciousness as they passed Carn Ingli, with its rugged sides terraced by the remains of ancient stone walls. After the couple left the area, the woman’s symptoms abated.

Carn Ingli

Carn Ingli

When investigating the 1987 Carn Ingli incident, the Dragon Project team were surprised to discover a magnetic anomaly on the peak that caused a compass needle to spin. Magnetism is known to affect the brain. Could this have caused the strange sensation experienced by the young woman? It may also help to explain the visions of angels that Saint Brynach, a sixth-century holy man, is said to have seen at Carn Ingli, a name meaning “Mound of Angels.”

*This article first appeared on alansmysteriousworld.wordpress.com and is written by The Writers Drawer.

The Mystery Of Gobekli Tepe

By ROBERT M. SCHOCH, PH.D.—gc3b6bekli-tepe-1

What were our ancestors like 10,000 or more years ago? The most common image is one of small
nomadic bands endlessly in pursuit of the next meal. Men hunted game while women and children gathered fruits, seeds, roots, shoots, insects, and other edibles.

The height of technology was a finely worked stone knife blade or spear point; nets, baskets, and cordage were also put to good use. Permanent structures were superfluous, for the group never stayed in one place very long. Material goods were sparse as possessions had to be limited to those easily carried. Jewellery (perhaps beads, animal teeth, or shells strung on a cord) and personal decoration (body paint, tattoos) were prized. In colder climates appropriate clothing was fashioned from animal skins. Social institutions were minimal. Not until the Neolithic Revolution, beginning about 10,000 years ago, did agriculture and domestication appear. This in turn allowed permanent settlement, leading to specialisation of labour, the development of crafts (including pottery and metalworking), the building of substantial structures, long-distance trade, and the slow and gradual evolution of complex societies.

None of this happened overnight. It took thousands of years, and it was not until around 4000 to 3000 BCE that true signs of high culture first appeared, such as fine artistry in decorative crafts, written records, scientific observations of the heavens, complex political organisations, and megalithic building projects. This level of achievement was reached in Mesopotamia, the Nile Valley, and the Indus Valley by the beginning of the third millennium BCE. A well-known example is the rise of dynastic Egypt about 3200 to 3100 BCE and the building of the Djoser pyramid circa 2630 BCE. Stonehenge in England dates from the same period.

Although accepted as dogma by many, this nice neat scenario may be completely wrong.

Questioning Accepted History

Back in 1991, I had the temerity to announce that the Great Sphinx of Egypt, conventionally dated to 2500 BCE (the reign of Pharaoh Khafre), actually has its origins in the 7000 to 5000 BCE range, or possibly earlier.

My announcement was done via a presentation at the October 1991 annual meeting of the Geological Society of America (this was allowed only after a formal abstract, submitted with my colleague John Anthony West, was accepted based on positive professional peer review).1 I made my case utilising scientific analyses, comparing erosion and weathering profiles around the Sphinx to the ancient climatic history of Egypt.

In brief, the Sphinx sits on the edge of the Sahara Desert, a hyper-arid region for the past 5,000 years; yet the statue shows substantial rain-induced erosion. The original structure must date back thousands of years prior to 3000 BCE (the head was re-carved in dynastic times).

I had pushed the Great Sphinx, arguably the grandest and most recognisable statue in the world, back into a period when humanity was supposedly just transitioning from a hunter-gatherer economy to a sedentary life. People 7,000 or more years ago were still brutish and unsavoury, at least by modern civilised standards. Certainly they were not carving giant statues (the Sphinx is about 20 meters tall by over 70 meters long) out of solid limestone bedrock. Immediately after my announcement of an older Sphinx, I was under attack. Archaeologist Carol Redmount (University of California, Berkeley) was quoted in the media, “There’s just no way that could be true.” The article continued, “The people of that region would not have had the technology, the governing institutions or even the will to build such a structure thousands of years before Khafre’s reign, she said.”2

The initial hoopla peaked in February 1992 at a “debate” on the age of the Great Sphinx held at the Chicago meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.3 As the New York Timesput it, “The exchange was to last an hour, but it spilled over to a news conference and then a hallway confrontation in which voices were raised and words skated on the icy edge of scientific politeness.” Egyptologist Mark Lehner could not accept the notion of an older Sphinx, personally attacking me by labelling my research “pseudoscience.” Lehner argued, “If the Sphinx was built by an earlier culture, where is the evidence of that civilisation? Where are the pottery shards? People during that age were hunters and gatherers. They didn’t build cities.”4 

At the time I lacked any pottery shards. But I was sure of my science, and I persisted. Two decades later, we have something better than pottery shards, and even earlier than my conservative Sphinx date of circa 5000 BCE to 7000 BCE (I now currently favour the older end of this range, or an even earlier date for the original Sphinx). Göbekli Tepe dates from over 10,000 years ago.

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Better than Pot Shards

A short drive from Urfa (alternatively Sanlıurfa), southeastern Turkey, atop a mountain north of the Harran Plain, sits Göbekli Tepe. Since 1995 Prof. Dr. Klaus Schmidt of the German Archaeological Institute has been excavating the site.5 Recently I visited it for myself. I was amazed.

At Göbekli Tepe immense finely carved and decorated T-shaped limestone pillars, many in the range of two to five and a half meters tall and weighing up to an estimated 10 to 15 tons, stand in Stonehenge-like circles. The workmanship is extraordinary, with clear sharp edges that would do any modern mason proud. It may be a cliché, but I cannot help but think of the opening scene of the classic 1968 movie 2001: A Space Odyssey. A group of ape-like proto-humans discovers a giant monolith; influenced by it, they learn to use tools, leading to civilisation.6 

Various pillars at Göbekli Tepe are decorated with bas-reliefs of animals, including foxes, boars, snakes, aurochs (wild cattle), Asiatic wild asses, wild sheep, birds (cranes, a vulture), a gazelle, and arthropods (scorpion, ants). The carvings are refined, sophisticated, and beautifully executed. Not only are there bas-reliefs, but also carvings in the round, including a carnivorous beast, possibly a lion or other feline, working its way down a column, apparently in pursuit of a boar carved in relief below. In the round, carvings of lions and boars have been uncovered, now housed in the Museum of Sanlıurfa, as is a life-sized statue of a man, which, though from Urfa, apparently dates to the Göbekli Tepe era.

Also from Göbekli Tepe are perfectly drilled stone beads. And, according to Prof. Schmidt, while some of the stone pillars were set in the local bedrock, others were set into a concrete- or terrazzo-like floor. Looking only at style and quality of workmanship, one might easily suggest that Göbekli Tepe dates between 3000 and 1000 BCE. How wrong one would be. Based on radiocarbon analyses, the site goes back to the period of 9000 to 10,000 BCE, and was intentionally buried circa 8000 BCE.7 That is, the site dates back an astounding 10,000 to 12,000 years ago!

This was supposedly the time of the brutish, nomadic, hunters and gatherers who, according to many academics, did not have the technology, governing institutions, or will to build structures such as those found at Göbekli Tepe. Clearly there is a disconnect between what conventional historians and archaeologists have been teaching all these years and the clear evidence on the ground.

As Stanford University archaeologist Ian Hodder commented, Göbekli Tepe is “unbelievably big and amazing, at a ridiculously early date… huge great stones and fantastic, highly refined art… Many people think that it changes everythingIt overturns the whole apple cart. All our theories were wrong.”8 Like my redating of the Great Sphinx, Göbekli Tepe forces us to reconsider our antiquity.

And like my work on the Sphinx, the specialists are perplexed by Göbekli Tepe. Patrick Symmes wrote inNewsweek, “But the real reason the ruins at Göbekli remain almost unknown, not yet incorporated in textbooks, is that the evidence is too strong, not too weak. ‘The problem with this discovery’, as [Glenn] Schwartz of Johns Hopkins puts it, ‘is that it is unique’. No other monumental sites from the era have been found. Before Göbekli, humans drew stick figures on cave walls, shaped clay into tiny dolls, and perhaps piled up small stones for shelter or worship. Even after Göbekli, there is little evidence of sophisticated building.”9

In a nutshell, we have evidence of high culture and civilisation circa 10,000 to 8000 BCE, but then an apparent decline or hiatus for thousands of years, until the “rise” of civilisation once again in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and elsewhere. What happened?

A Record of Precession at Göbekli Tepe

A hallmark of civilisation is precise scientific observation. Astronomy is often considered the earliest yet most sophisticated of the sciences. A particularly subtle astronomical phenomenon, the discovery of which is generally credited to Hipparchus of Rhodes in the second century BCE,10 is the slow movement of the stars relative to the equatorial coordinate system. This is commonly referred to as the precession of the equinoxes. The entire cycle, with stars returning to their “starting points,” takes somewhat under 26,000 years. Some researchers suggest that precession was known to the ancient Egyptians and other early civilisations, and is reflected in myths worldwide.11 Others dispute such assertions. I found evidence of precession at Göbekli Tepe, adding another layer of sophistication to this remarkable site.

The excavated portions of Göbekli Tepe lie on the southern slope of a hill looking out to the southern skies. Thus far, the better part of four stone circles (enclosures) has been excavated in an area measuring about 40 by 40 meters square. Additional, later and smaller, pillars and structures have been partially uncovered both 20 to 30 meters north and about 80 meters west of the major area of circles,12 and eighteen or more stone circles still under the earth have been identified. Enclosure D is located furthest north. To the southeast lies Enclosure C, and to the south of Enclosure D lies Enclosure B and finally A. The enclosures are very close to each other, almost abutting. Each enclosure possesses a pair of tall central parallel pillars ringed by a circle of shorter pillars with later stonewalls between the pillars. If at some point the enclosures were covered over, they may have been entered from above; indeed, possible carved stone “portals” have been found that may have been set in a roof.

The central pairs of pillars are oriented generally toward the southeast, as if forming sighting tubes toward the sky. The central pillars of Enclosure D include arms and hands, with the hands holding the belly or navel area, and it is clear that the anthropomorphic pillars are facing south. The orientations vary from enclosure to enclosure, however. For Enclosure D the central pillars are oriented approximately 7º east of south. Those for Enclosures C, B, and A are approximately 13º east of south, 20º east of south, and 35º east of south respectively.13 These varying angles suggest the builders were observing stars and building new enclosures oriented progressively toward the east as they followed particular stars or star clusters over hundreds of years.

What were the builders observing? This is a difficult question to answer, but we can hypothesise. On the morning of the Vernal Equinox of circa 10,000 BCE, before the Sun rose due east at Göbekli Tepe, the Pleiades, Taurus, and the top of Orion were in view in the direction indicated by the central stones of Enclosure D, with Orion’s belt not far above the horizon (as seen from the best vantage points in the area) as dawn broke.14 A similar scenario played out for the orientation of the central stones of Enclosure C in circa 9500 BCE and for Enclosure B in circa 9000 BCE. Enclosure A is oriented toward the Pleiades, Taurus, and Orion on the morning of the Vernal Equinox circa 8500 BCE, but due to precessional changes, the entire belt of Orion no longer rose above the horizon before dawn broke. By about 8150 BCE the belt of Orion remained below the horizon at dawn on the morning of the Vernal Equinox. These dates fit well the timeframe established for Göbekli Tepe on the basis of radiocarbon dating.

The Vernal Equinox is easily observed and noted, and since the beginning of recorded history has been an important marker, celebrated with festivities. It marks the first day of the year in numerous calendars, and is tied to cosmological creation stories. I suspect that these traditions go back to Göbekli Tepe times, and even earlier.

The Orion-Taurus region of the sky has been a focus of ancient humans for tens of thousands of years in Europe and the Middle East. Here are located the asterisms of Orion’s belt and the Hyades, as well as the Pleiades. Researchers such as Michael Rappenglueck, Frank Edge, and Luz Antequera Congregado have identified the constellation Taurus and the Pleiades among the paintings of Lascaux cave, France, dating back 16,500 years ago.15 Additionally, Rappenglueck asserts that a tiny tablet from Germany, carved of mammoth ivory and dating back at least 32,500 years, depicts the constellation Orion in the familiar guise of a narrow-waist male with outstretched arms and legs.16 

Given such evidence, it is reasonable that the Göbekli Tepe people recognised Orion as a human figure, even as a hunter. The mammal remains found while excavating Göbekli Tepe (including numerous gazelle, aurochs or wild cattle, wild ass, fox, wild sheep/goat species, and boars), as well as the reliefs on the pillars, can be taken to indicate a hunting society. Indeed, studying the anthropomorphic pillars of Enclosure D, they may represent, in stylised form, Orion. Not only do they have arms (which could be interpreted as the arms of Orion brought down to the body), but also prominent belts (the belt stars of Orion) and fox pelt loincloths that may represent the Orion Nebula and associated features.

My suggestion that the Göbekli Tepe people were observing the Orion-Taurus-Pleiades region of the sky on the morning of the Vernal Equinox is simply a hypothesis. If they were observing stars (versus the Sun, for instance), then they needed to readjust their observations over the centuries due to precessional changes. And maybe they were observing something more than just the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars.

Göbekli Tepe, Easter Island, and the Plasma Connection

Having returned from Easter Island (January 2010) not long before visiting Göbekli Tepe (May 2010), I was surprised to see numerous iconographic similarities between the two. I believe these similarities are real, but I might have missed them if I had not been to both sites in succession. Furthermore, both Easter Island and Göbekli Tepe may relate to powerful plasma events in the skies at the end of the last ice age.

The outstanding feature of Easter Island is the moai, those huge stone heads and torsos that dot the island. In the case of Göbekli Tepe, stone pillars dominate the scene. Amazingly, both the moai and the anthropomorphic central pillars of Enclosure D at Göbekli Tepe have arms and hands positioned similarly against the body, with hands and fingers extended over the belly and navel region. The moai are looking up at the skies, and I believe the Göbekli Tepe pillars are also looking towards the skies. Are they looking to identical phenomena?

As I have discussed elsewhere,17 the indigenous Easter Island rongorongo script may record a major plasma event in the skies thousands of years ago, at the end of the last ice age. Plasma consists of electrically charged particles. Familiar plasma phenomena on Earth today include lightning and auroras, the northern and southern lights. In the past, much more powerful plasma events may have taken place, perhaps due to coronal mass ejections from the Sun or emissions from other celestial objects. Powerful plasma phenomena could cause strong electrical discharges to hit Earth, burning and incinerating materials on the planet’s surface.

Los Alamos plasma physicist Anthony L. Peratt and his associates have established that petroglyphs found worldwide record an intense plasma event (or events) in prehistory.18 Peratt has determined that powerful plasma phenomena observed in the skies would take on characteristic shapes resembling humanoid figures, humans with bird heads, sets of rings or donut shapes, and writhing snakes or serpents – shapes reflected in the ancient petroglyphs. Plasma events may be a dominant theme found among the ancient remains of Easter Island. Likewise, plasma may be important to understanding Göbekli Tepe.

One of the strange and perplexing aspects of Göbekli Tepe is that it was not simply abandoned and left to oblivion, but intentionally buried around 8000 BCE. Furthermore, before its final burial, stonewalls were built between the finely wrought pillars. These walls are, in my opinion, clearly secondary as in many cases they cover over the fine relief carvings on the pillars. They are also much cruder than the pillars. Additionally, some pillars appear to have fallen over and broken, and were subsequently repaired or re-erected when the walls were built. In several cases the bases of the broken pillars are missing or lying horizontally under the tops of the broken pillars that were set to the correct height on a pile of stones. At this late stage the walls and pillars may have been roofed over.

Among the oddities of Easter Island are the low-lying, solid, thick-walled stone buildings with narrow entrances that look like bunkers or fallout shelters. These stone “houses” of Easter Island are similar to the structures formed by the walls and pillars of Göbekli Tepe. Could they, in both cases, have been protection from some type of phenomena emanating from the skies, such as plasma strikes?

Some might criticise comparisons between Easter Island and Göbekli Tepe not only on the basis that they are on opposite sides of the globe, but are also ostensibly separated by thousands of years (Göbekli Tepe dating from 8000 BCE and before, whereas according to standard chronologies Easter Island was not inhabited until a mere millennium and a half ago). In counterargument, I question whether we really know when Easter Island was first colonised. Even if surviving Easter Island antiquities and structures are from a relatively late period, they may reflect earlier traditions and styles, perhaps brought by settlers from elsewhere, that date back to a time of intense plasma outbursts. The rongorongo tablets may carefully preserve ancient texts that were copied over and over.

Just as I have argued that the Easter Island rongorongo script records plasma events in the ancient skies, so too might certain carved motifs found at Göbekli Tepe. Peratt has made the connection between birdman petroglyphs and plasma phenomena around the world. On Easter Island we find birdman petroglyphs as well as birdmen and bird symbols among the rongorongo hieroglyphs. At Göbekli Tepe a very similar bird form was carved into one of the pillars. Peratt records many plasma phenomena that can be interpreted as having the appearance of snakes. An abundance of snakes are found on the pillars of Göbekli Tepe, slithering vertically up and down the ends of some of the columns. Could these represent huge bolts of plasma?

Buried for Posterity

Based on the evidence slowly being pieced together, it appears there may have been a major plasma event, or events, in antiquity. In a previous article (see New Dawn 121)19 I posited that a major plasma event, circa 9700 BCE, helped bring about the end of the last ice age. If the radiocarbon dating of Göbekli Tepe, to circa 10,000 to 8000 BCE is correct, perhaps the first-built stone circle was initiated in response to this plasma event of circa 9700 BCE.

The plasma phenomena were observed originating from the south, the direction toward which the Göbekli Tepe complex is oriented. Plasma events may have continued for centuries, and they may correlate with the additions and elaborations – stonewalls and more stone circles – seen at Göbekli Tepe. Perhaps ultimately the plasma was too much for the Göbekli Tepe people to bear, and they abandoned the site, but not before carefully covering it over. Whether their intention was to return once the skies calmed down, or to preserve their work for posterity, we do not know.

What happened at Göbekli Tepe? What were the people of that time doing? What were they experiencing? Why did they bury their creation and leave? Where did they go? These may be more than simple academic questions.  I suspect that the Göbekli Tepe people experienced something dramatic, something so important they felt compelled to memorialise it in a record of stone that could last for over ten thousand years. They expended enormous resources to leave a message, possibly a warning, for us. Now it is time to fully uncover it and decipher what they had to say.

 

Footnotes

1. Robert M. Schoch and John Anthony West, “Redating the Great Sphinx of Giza, Egypt”, Geological Society of America abstracts with programs, vol. 23, no. 5, A253 (1991). For further discussion of the date of the Great Sphinx, see: Robert M. Schoch. “Redating the Great Sphinx of Giza”, KMT, A Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt, vol. 3, no. 2, 52-59, 66-70 (Summer 1992); Robert M. Schoch, “Geological Evidence Pertaining to the Age of the Great Sphinx”, in New Scenarios on the Evolution of the Solar System and Consequences on History of Earth and Man (Eds. Emilio Spedicato and Adalberto Notarpietro), Proceedings of the Conference, Milano and Bergamo, June 7-9th, 1999, Università degli Studi di Bergamo, Quaderni del Dipartmento di Matematica, Statistica, Informatica ed Applicazion, Serie Miscellanea, Anno 2002, N. 3, 171-203 (2002); Robert M. Schoch, “Life with the Great Sphinx: Some Personal Reflections”, Darklore, vol. 1, 38-55, 291 (2007); Robert M. Schoch with Robert Aquinas McNally, Voices of the Rocks: A Scientist Looks at Catastrophes and Ancient Civilizations, New York: Harmony Books, 1999; Robert M. Schoch with Robert Aquinas McNally, Voyages of the Pyramid Builders: The True Origins of the Pyramids from Lost Egypt to Ancient America, New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin, 2003; Robert M. Schoch and Robert Aquinas McNally, Pyramid Quest: Secrets of the Great Pyramid and the Dawn of Civilization, New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin, 2005; Robert M. Schoch and John Anthony West, “Further Evidence Supporting a Pre-2500 B.C. Date for the Great Sphinx of Giza, Egypt”, Geological Society of America abstracts with programs, v. 32, no. 7, A276 (2000); T. L. Dobecki and R. M. Schoch, “Seismic Investigations in the Vicinity of the Great Sphinx of Giza, Egypt”,Geoarchaeology, vol. 7, no. 6, 527-544 (1992).

2. Lee Dye, “Sphinx’s New Riddle–Is It Older Than Experts Say? Archeology: Geologists cite study of weathering patterns. But Egyptologists say findings can’t be right”, Los Angeles Times, October 23, 1991. Posted at: http://articles.latimes.com/1991-10-23/news/mn-183_1_great-sphinx (Accessed 14 June 2010).

3. Robert M. Schoch, “How old is the Sphinx?”, Abstracts for the 1992 Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Chicago, 202 (1992).

4. Anonymous, “Scholars Dispute Claim That Sphinx Is Much Older”, New York Times, February 9, 1992. Posted at: www.nytimes.com/1992/02/09/us/scholars-dispute-claim-that-sphinx-is-much-older.html(Accessed 14 June 2010).

5. Klaus Schmidt, Sie bauten die ersten Tempel: Das rätselhafte Heiligtum der Steinzeijäger, Die archäologische Entdeckung am Göbekli Tepe, München: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 2006/2008; Klaus Schmidt, Tas Çagi Avcılarının Gizemli Kutsal Alanı Göbekli Tepe En Eski Tapınagı Yapanlar, Istanbul: Arkeolojí ve Sanat Yayınları, 2007; K. Schmidt, “Göbekli Tepe, Southeastern Turkey: A Preliminary Report on the 1995-1999 Excavations,” Paléorient, vol. 26, no. 1, 45-54 (2001); Joris Peters and Klaus Schmidt, “Animals in the symbolic world of Pre-Pottery Neolithic Göbekli Tepe, south-eastern Turkey: a preliminary assessment”, Anthropozoologica, vol. 39, no. 1, 179-218 (2004). For popular discussions of Göbekli Tepe, see: Graham Chandler (photographs by Ergun Çagatay), “The Beginning of the End for Hunter-Gatherers”, Saudi ARAMCO World, vol. 60, no. 2, 2-9 (March/April 2009); Andrew Curry (photographs by Berthold Steinhilber), “The World’s First Temple? Predating Stonehenge by 6,000 years, Turkey’s Stunning Gobekli Tepe Upends the Conventional View of the Rise of Civilization”,Smithsonian, vol. 39, no. 8, 54-58, 60 (November 2008); Patrick Symmes, “History in the Remaking: A temple complex in Turkey that predates even the pyramids is rewriting the story of human evolution”,Newsweek, 1 March 2010, article published online 19 February 2010 at: www.newsweek.com/id/233844(Accessed 29 April 2010).

6. Stanley Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke, directed by Stanley Kubrick, 2001: A Space Odyssey (film), Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 1968.

7. I briefly discussed the dating of Göbekli Tepe on site with Prof. Schmidt. It is based not only on calibrated radiocarbon dates of circa 9000 BCE or earlier on organic remains found in the material used to fill the site (these dates would be later than the actual occupation of the site), but also dates of circa 8000-7500 BCE on pedogenic carbonate coatings and micro-stalactites on wall stones (see Peters and Schmidt, 2004, 182 [note 5.]). These carbonate coatings and micro-stalactites would have formed only after the burial of the site and after soil formation began, thus indicating that the site itself was buried by circa 8000 BCE. Taken together, I am convinced that the evidence indicates that the site was actively used in the tenth and ninth millennia BCE and intentionally buried (as indicated by the systematic layers of the fill material and the material the fill contains, including flint tools and waste, animal and plant remains) circa 8000 BCE. The older Enclosures (A, B, C, and D) belong to Schmidt’s “Layer III.” Overlying Layer III is the younger Layer II, which contains smaller pillars and structures, and may date to the same period as the Neolithic site of Nevali Çori, an area northwest of Göbekli Tepe and similar in many respects to the Layer II period at Göbekli Tepe. Nevali Çori was excavated in the 1990s, but has since been flooded as a result of the Atatürk Dam built on the Euphrates River. Nevali Çori and Layer II of Göbekli Tepe may date to the second half of the ninth millennium BCE. In the catalog to accompany a 2007 exhibit at the Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (Die ältesten Monumente der Menschheit. Vor 12.000 Jahren in Anatolien, Stuttgart: Konrad Theiss, 2007), the earlier material at Göbekli Tepe, that of Layer III, is referred to 9500-8800 BCE whereas the material from Layer II is referred to 8800-8000 BCE and material from Nevali Çori is dated to circa 8500-7900 BCE. Prof. Schmidt suggested that some of the carved depressions and gouges, for instance on the tops of pillars, may date to a time when the site was buried but still remembered as an important or holy site, and people came to partake of the energy of the site. As Veysí Yildiz, son of the local landowner, explained, even before the archaeological remains were discovered at Göbekli Tepe, the area was held in reverence (stone-covered graves are found on the top of the mound to this day).

8. Quoted by Patrick Symmes in Newsweek [see note 5.].

9. Patrick Symmes [see note 5.]

10. Giulio Magli, “On the possible discovery of precessional effects in ancient astronomy,” article from 2004 posted at: http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0407/0407108.pdf (Accessed 17 June 2010); Giulio Magli, Mysteries and Discoveries of Archaeoastronomy: From Giza to Easter Island, New York: Copernicus Books, 2009.

11. See for instance, J. Norman Lockyer, The Dawn of Astronomy, New York: Macmillan, 1894 (reprinted, with a preface by Giorgio de Santillana, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1964); Giorgio de Santillana and Hertha von Dechend, Hamlet’s Mill: An Essay on Myth and the Frame of Time, Boston: Gambit, 1969.

12. The main, and older, portion of Göbekli Tepe under discussion in this article belongs to Schmidt’s Layer III; the younger and smaller pillars and structures belong to Schmidt’s Layer II [see note 7.].

13. These measurements are only approximate, and are based on the plan of Göbekli Tepe on page 186 of Peters and Schmidt, 2004 [note 5.].

14. Alignments discussed here were determined using the computer program “Starry Night Pro 4.5” (Toronto: Space Holding Company, 2003).

15. Christopher Seddon, “Ice Age Star Maps?” article dated 1 January 2008, posted atwww.christopherseddon.com/2008/01/ice-age-star-maps.html (Accessed 5 June 2010); Gary D. Thompson, “Paleolithic European Constellations – star maps in Lascaux cave in France 16,500-13,000 B.C.”, article dated 2001-2007, posted at: www.mazzaroth.com/ChapterOne/LascauxCave.htm (Accessed 5 June 2010); David Whitehouse, “Ice Age star map discovered”, article dated 9 August 2000, posted at:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/871930.stm (Accessed 5 June 2010).

16. David Whitehouse, “ ‘Oldest star chart’ found”, article dated 21 January 2003, posted at:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2679675.stm (Accessed 5 June 2010).

17. Robert M. Schoch, “An Ancient Warning, A Global Message, From the End of the Last Ice Age”, New Dawn 121, 15-22 (July-August 2010).

18. Anthony L. Peratt, “Characteristics for the Occurrence of a High-Current, Z-Pinch Aurora as Recorded in Antiquity”, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Transactions on Plasma Science, vol. 31, no. 6, 1192-1214 (December 2003); Anthony L. Peratt, John McGovern, Alfred H. Qöyawayma, Marinus Anthony Van der Sluijs, and Mathias G. Peratt, “Characteristics for the Occurrence of a High-Current, Z-Pinch Aurora as Recorded in Antiquity Part II: Directionality and Source”, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Transactions on Plasma Science, vol. 35, no. 4, 778-807 (August 2007); A. L. Peratt and W. F. Yao, “Evidence for an Intense Solar Outburst in Prehistory”, Physica Scripta (The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences), 13 pages (December 2008).

19. See note 17.

ROBERT M. SCHOCH, Ph.D., is renowned for his work on re-dating the Great Sphinx. Based on his geological studies, he determined that the Sphinx’s origins date prior to dynastic times. He has also focused his attention on the Great Pyramid and various other temples and tombs in Egypt, as well as studying similar structures around the world. Dr. Schoch is an author and coauthor of both technical and popular books, including the trilogy with R. A. McNally: Voices of the Rocks: A Scientist Looks at Catastrophes and Ancient Civilizations(1999), Voyages of the Pyramid Builders: The True Origins of the Pyramids from Lost Egypt to Ancient America (2003), and Pyramid Quest: Secrets of the Great Pyramid and the Dawn of Civilization (2005). Website: www.robertschoch.com

© Copyright New Dawn Magazine, http://www.newdawnmagazine.com. Permission granted to freely distribute this article for non-commercial purposes if unedited and copied in full, including this notice.

© Copyright New Dawn Magazine, http://www.newdawnmagazine.com. Permission to re-send, post and place on web sites for non-commercial purposes, and if shown only in its entirety with no changes or additions. This notice must accompany all re-posting.

Extraterrestrial Life, UFO’s, Human Origins and More…

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Did flesh and blood extraterrestrials visit Earth a long, long time ago? Are we really the pinnacle of creation? Could the knowledge of apparently highly advanced technology in ancient civilizations be related to ancient alien contact? And most importantly, did ancient aliens interfere with or influence human and cultural evolution? What evidence do we currently find on Earth.

At the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America (effectively Geology’s Super bowl), author, lecturer and guide, John Anthony West and his colleague, Boston University geologist and geophysicist, Dr. Robert M. Schoch delivered a seismic shock to archaeology; a shock from which it never has (and never will) recover.

All the ancient cultures built monuments that align to various star constellations. They were all aware of a much larger cycle of time. Why did they build so many megalithic monuments that track the movement of the heavens?

Every old temple in Greece is connected with other old temples, with the same distances and angles. In ancient Europe Stonehenge and other old places are all connected under the same geometrical lines. Who measured these places in the deep past? The pyramids of Teotihuacan show a model of our solar system including Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. (Pluto was discovered in 1930.)

Ancient Aliens

Although we are the product of evolution, we are at the same time decadence of some extraterrestrials. This can be clearly proven in the Lamech- scrolls one of the death sea scrolls.

Some thousands of years ago our forefathers showed their gods in cave paintings. Throughout the ages until today humans have presented their heavenly teachers in a similar way. Erich von Däniken gives the pictorial evidence from the past to the present.

Near the city of Cusco/Peru exist stone cuttings of prehistoric times. Which were impossible to made with prehistoric tools. The same is truth for the so called ruins of Puma Punku in Bolivia. Erich von Däniken debunks the archaeological explanations.

Every antique culture was expecting the return of some gods. This goes on until today. Every present religion is expecting their savior: Jesus, Buddha, the Muslim Mahadi, and the Jewish Messaja.

Learn about the latest concepts that explore the idea our solar system is binary in nature. The Mesopotamian and biblical sources present strong evidence that the orbital period of the Planet X (Nibiru) is 3,600 years. The number 3,600 was written in Sumerian as a large circle. The Sumerians called this a shar, which also meant ‘a perfect circle’ or ‘a completed
cycle’.

Want to learn more about Ancient Aliens, UFO’s, Human Origins and more?

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Come discover why LA Weekly crowned CONTACT in the DESERT “the planet’s premiere UFO conference.” As you know if you were one of the thousand plus people who attended last year, this conference is about much, much more than merely UFO sightings. It explores ancient astronauts, extraterrestrial life, human origins, crop circles, contact experiences and the increasingly urgent need for public disclosure.

The public’s interest into paranormal or non-mainstream science is becoming more and more popular. People have questions about our true origins or topics regarding UFO’s, aliens, and really have no where in mainstream science or education to explore these topics

This year’s conference will again coincide with the Perseid meteor shower, and the retreat center offers the perfect place to view this annual astronomical spectacle through the clear desert skies. Everyone had a great time last year even if you are a skeptic or a believer, there is fun for all. I personally enjoyed seeing other fellow researchers and gave us a chance to socialize with fans after the daily events.

This year’s lineup of expert speakers is truly out of this world! Come experience lectures, workshops, intensives and more with many familiar faces from The HISTORY Channel’s Ancient Aliens, GaiamTV and Coast to Coast AM including George Noory, Jason Martell, Giorgio A. Tsoukalos, Erich von Däniken, Dr. Steven Greer, David Wilcock, Nick Pope and many, many more.

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Jason Martell Present‘s Live

I will be giving a FREE lecture and a more in-depth workshop on Ancient Planet X and other well known topics. I hope to see you there!

Win Free Passes To This Conference

ENTER to WIN a PAIR OF PASSES to the 2nd annual CONTACT in the DESERT this August when many of the world’s leading experts studying earthly phenomenon of extraterrestrial origin will convene at Joshua Tree Retreat Center to explore answers to some of the greatest questions of all time.

Green On Mars

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Is NASA About To Announce Plant Life On Mars?

It would be easy to take it for granted that the atmosphere of Mars is inhospitable to sustaining life. In fact, this is generally considered to be the case—which is a good reason why NASA would be so quick to dismiss the images of the Face on Mars and the Pyramids as mere natural by-products of wind erosion. To consider that these structures were deliberately created, we have to assume that the Martian atmosphere at some point was capable of supporting life. Currently, there is a vast body of evidence emerging that suggests that this may well have been the case at some time in the past.

Primarily, scientists have been examining what is known as the Gusev crater, a huge crater with a diameter of about 160 kilometers (90 miles).  Many believe that the crater at one point was filled with water. The size and dimensions of the crater suggest that possibly a lake once stood there.

The NASA Spirit Rover landed in center of the Gusev crater in 2004. Images taken from the Rover’s panoramic camera also show a number of interesting rocks. One rock outcropping, called the “Pot of Gold,” has been thus named for its strange collection of nodules. There is also a cluster of rocks that resemble rotting loaves of bread and have therefore been dubbed the  “Rotten Rocks.”

Did NASA Discover Bacterial Life?

The Mars Express spacecraft has gathered some other remarkable information. The mission of this spacecraft was initially to analyze in detail the chemical composition of the Martian atmosphere. The atmosphere on Mars consists of 95% carbon dioxide in addition to 5% other constituents which are not entirely known. Scientists suspected that this 5% is made up of a combination water, carbon monoxide, oxygen, formaldehyde and methane. The Mars Express was equipped with an instrument known as a Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS), which is able to detect very specific molecules through an analysis of the molecule’s light absorption mode. This is known as the molecule’sspectral fingerprint.” This instrument was able to determine for certain that methane is present in the atmosphere of Mars. The next question is, where does it come from?

Unless there is a consistent source producing the methane that continually puts it out into the atmosphere, then the methane would only survive in the atmosphere for a few hundred years. This is because it oxidizes into water and carbon dioxide fairly quickly. Both water and carbon dioxide are present in the Martian atmosphere. However, since there is also still methane present, there must be some mechanism that puts it into the atmosphere on an ongoing basis.

One theory for the ongoing presence of methane involves the possibility of volcanic activity. However, so far no active volcanos have been detected on the surface of Mars. This makes it necessary to consider the other possibility—that the methane is a by-product of biological activity such as fermentation.

Taking this possibility into consideration, NASA’s pictures of the Gusev crater using the Mars Global Surveyor, and the more recent Odyssey mission using the Themis Camera reveal some other interesting data as well. As you can see here, the images taken show a dark mass that at first glance seems to have characteristics that resemble some sort of plant life.

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In 2004, the European Space Agency took its first full color image of the Gusev crater. What made the ESA image so immediately interesting was the “dark mass” features seen streaking in portions of the floor of the 90-mile-wide Crater in the NASA imaging (left). They can now be seen in true color by ESA revealed by Mars Express (right) to be various amazing shades of green.

At Gusev, if the craters in the area were indeed harboring conditions conducive to some special algae growth – primarily, by extending below the local water table — then one could easily speculate that as the algae mats within some craters grow in the Martian spring and summer, and ultimately reproduce, their spores are carried by the winds out of the craters … to form the long, sinuous streaks across the intercrater surfaces observed from orbit! The “streaks,” then, would simply be more colonies of algae from the craters … spread by algae spores surviving for a time between the crater floors.

Methane All Over Mars…..

However, deprived of crucial quantities of water and essential nutrients (which, in this scenario, would be concentrated on those crater floors), the migrating algae colonies between the craters quickly die … anddecompose. Through this process, they would inevitably release some of their bound organics – the hydrogen, carbon, etc. — back into the atmosphere … to be seen as significant quantities of methane gas.

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During 2004 observations from the ESA Mars Express spacecraft in orbit around Mars, methane was detected in its atmosphere. And even more recently, methane has been detected on Mars by three independent groups of scientists. And this could be a sign of life-indicating, methane-producing bacteria.

In 2005, the “Pot of Gold” rock outcropping was examined in more detail. The Mars Spirit Rover discovered high concentrations of magnesium iron carbonate. This is a huge discovery. Carbonate originates only in wet, neutral conditions but dissolves in acidic conditions. Therefore, the presence of carbonate indicates that the ancient water which once pooled in the Gusev crater was not acidic. Rather, it was non-acidic water and therefore highly favorable habitat for supporting life. The substantial concentration of the carbonate deposit indicates a high probability that conditions were once highly conducive to supporting life in this place.

It becomes more and more clear that the Martian atmosphere has not always been so inhospitable to sustaining life. With this information, we must take into consideration the possibility that the remarkable Face and Pyramid formations on the surface of the planet did not simply emerge through natural processes. It becomes increasingly likely that their construction was deliberate at some point in the planet’s long and mysterious history. If this is so, it begs us to consider the possibility of a connection between the Martian Face and Pyramids and certain remarkable constructions found on our own planet Earth…

City Of The Gods

City Of The Gods – Teotihuacán

Thirty miles north of Mexico City lay the ruins of an impressive ancient city. Teotihuacán, The City of the Gods, was a carefully planned city once covering eight square miles. At its height, it is believed to have had a population of around 200,000 and was far more advanced than any European city of its time. For centuries, Teotihuacán was the Mesoamerican region’s cultural, religious, political, economic, and social center. The massive temples of the Sun, the Moon, the Citadel, and the various palaces, plazas, and paved streets are said to have been built by a pre-Aymara civilization. Once again, another incredible site, the builders of which are unidentified before one considers the Anunnaki paradigm.

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According to archeologists, Teotihuacán was a vibrant metropolis and ceremonial center pre-dating the Aztecs civilization by several centuries. It must have been inhabited by thousands of people, but it is impossible to say who they were or where they came from. It is believed that its decline began suddenly around 650 AD and that by 740 AD it was completely abandoned. But no one knows why.

Though archaeologists have long been fascinated with the site, Teotihuacán’s culture and history are still largely mysterious. The civilization left massive ruins, but no trace has yet been found of a writing system and very little is known for sure about its builders, who were followed first by the Toltecs and then by the Aztecs.

Place of the Gods

The Aztecs did not live in the city, but gave the place and its major structures their current names. They considered it the “Place of the Gods” and believed it was the place where the world had been created.

It is known that ultimately the Aztecs were conquered by the Spanish. What is interesting about this fact is that many archaeologists and anthropologists agree that the Spanish were not necessarily better soldiers than the Aztecs, but that they physically resembled the Aztec’s depictions of their god Quetzalcoatl.

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Symbolized as a feathered serpent, Quetzalcoatl is also apparently an historical figure of some sort. He supposedly brought culture, mathematics, astronomy, masonry, architecture, agriculture, knowledge of herbal medicine, law, arts, metallurgy and the concept of the calendar to the Aztec people. But he is physically pictured as entirely different form the natives of this region. Rather, he is depicted as light-skinned, with a long nose and beard. The Aztecs believed that he had arrived by a boat from the east and, after imparting his wealth of knowledge, sailed away again with a promise to return one day.

Relevant to our discussion here, why would the Aztecs have created a god-like figure not out of their own image? And where did he come from? Clearly, they had acquired vast knowledge—enough to construct a remarkably advance civilization—from a creature who had come from far away. Further, he looked nothing like them, but was entirely other. When one considers facts like these, it is impossible not to at least consider the possibility of an alien helping hand all those centuries ago.

Turning back to the original inhabitants of Teotihuacán, though, and their remarkable achievements even before the Aztecs came into the picture, we must examine the incredible ruins they left behind.

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It is here, at Teotihuacán, that we find even more remarkable pyramids, mirroring those found in Egypt as well as on Mars. There are also a number of palaces and temples adorned with incredible murals and stone carvings—all of which demonstrate a high degree of sophisticated artistry and craftsmanship.

But let’s focus our attention on the remarkable pyramids, since they have such incredible, inexplicable parallels with Egypt and Cydonia. First, there is the Pyramid of the Sun, which is the largest in the Teotihuacán complex. It is the third largest pyramid on earth and it dominates the landscape of these Mesoamerican ruins.

As you can see, the pyramid is stepped rather than smooth-sided—more like the earliest Egyptian Pyramids rather than the later ones. It once stood 210 feet high and 650 feet square. There was a wooden temple perched upon the top of the pyramid, looking out over the vast city below.

Pyramid Similarities Match Giza

It is very interesting to note some of the similarities between The Pyramid of the Sun and the Great Pyramid of Giza. Considering their vast geographical distance from one another, it is revealing to examine the relationship between the measurements of each one.

First of all, they are nearly equal in their base perimeter measurements. Also, the Pyramid of the Sun is just about exactly half the height of the Great Pyramid. It’s also clear that the ratio of each of their heights to the perimeters of their bases are both based on the mathematical ratio pi. While the base perimeter of the Pyramid of the Sun is 4pi times its height, the Great pyramid of Giza’s base perimeter is 2pi times its height. Obviously, whoever constructed these pyramids had a similar advanced knowledge of geometry and sophisticated mathematics. Each of these builders also applied their knowledge to constructing remarkable similar pyramids—located at a massive distance from one another. It is impossible not to suspect some common factor here, an architect perhaps linking these two radically different civilizations.

There is another remarkable feature of the all the pyramids at Teotihuacán. Many of them contain a very thick layer of mica, which is definitely not to be found in the area. The closest source location for mica is Brazil, in fact—which is more than 2,000 miles away! Mica is a very delicate substance—flakey in texture, almost powdery. Yet massive amounts of it are to be found in the pyramids here, and they could only have been brought in large quantities from this great distance, supposedly in an era pre-dating the use of wheeled vehicles. How could it have traveled so far?

It’s also noteworthy that the mica was used as an inner layer of these pyramids—that is, it is not visible from the outside. Therefore, its application must have been practical rather than aesthetic. Today, we know to use mica as an insulating substance in electronic and electrical devices. Was it being used for the same purpose in these ancient pyramids? If so, how did these mysterious ancients have the knowledge of its insulating powers?

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City Built As Ancient Mathematical Grid

Another remarkable thing about Teotihuacán is the layout of the city. It turns out to be a grid, clearly, offset by about 15.5 degrees from the cardinal points. The main avenue, known as the Street of the Dead, runs from 15º.5 east of north to 15º.5 west of south. The Pyramid of the Sun is oriented north of due west by this exact same amount, making it so that this Pyramid faces directly into the point of the setting sun—on August 13th. Because of this last fact, we know that the layout of Teotihuacán being slightly off the cardinal points is not due to a “misalignment” or error in calculations. Clearly, it is laid out very deliberately.

The layout of the city suggests that it was done with an advanced knowledge of astronomy. The Pyramid of the Moon is located at one end of the Street of the Dead, and is aligned with the Pyramid of the Sun so carefully that it creates a sight line across the two, marking the meridian. This would have allowed the ancient people who built these structures to have fixed the times of noon and midnight with perfect precision.

There are many remarkable facts about this ancient city that indicate advanced mathematics and astronomy. It is difficult to imagine that many of the particulars of its construction were achieved with only observational, “naked-eye” astronomy, as it is supposed these people would have had. Is it possible, then, that they had more technology—more assistance—than we usually suppose? The precise design of the entire city and its pyramids certainly leads us to this conclusion.

Top 10 Ancient Civilizations with Advanced Technology Pt. 2

#6. TIAHUANACO

As in Mu and Atlantis, construction in South America was on megalithic scale with polygonal construction techniques designed to make the massive walls earthquake-proof. Earthquake-resistant walls were important all around the Ring-of-Fire, ancient Mu.

Homes and communal buildings were built out of megalithic blocks of stone. Because of the high regard the culture had for the well being of future generations and the value they placed upon the gradual, sustained growth of the community, structures were built to last for thousands of years. A house built of cement, wood and plaster-wall will last a hundred years or so, if kept up. Witness the megalithic construction of Egypt, Malta, Peru. These buildings are still standing today. Cuzco, the ancient capital of Peru, which was probably built before the Incas, is still inhabited today after thousands of years. Indeed, most of the buildings of downtown Cuzco today incorporate walls that are many hundreds of years old (whereas more recent buildings constructed by the Spanish are already crumbling).

Only a few hundred miles to the south of Cuzco lie the fantastic ruins of Puma Punku, high in the Altiplano of Bolivia. The ruins of Puma Punku, about one mile from the famous ruins of Tiahuanaco, are massive megalithic constructions that are tossed about like toy building blocks. What kind of cataclysmic upheaval could have done such a thing? Here is the kind of megalithic construction meant to last for thousands of years, yet, the 100-ton blocks have been torn asunder by mighty geological forces.

It would appear that the South American continent was suddenly and violently thrust upward during some kind of cataclysm, most likely a pole shift. A former sea-level canal can now be seen at 13,000 feet in the Andes Mountains. As possible evidence for this scenario, many ocean fossils can be found near Lake Titicaca. The lake is even inhabited by the only known fresh water sea horses.

#7. THE MAYANS

Chichen Itza

Chichen Itza

Mayan pyramids are found from Central America to as far away as the Indonesian island of Java. The pyramid of Sukuh, on the slopes of Mount Lawu near Surakarta in central Java is an amazing temple with stone stelae and a step pyramid that would match any in the jungles of Central America. The pyramid is in fact virtually identical to the pyramids found at the ancient Mayan site at Uaxactun, near Tikal.

The ancient Mayans were brilliant astronomers and mathematicians whose early cities lived in agrarian harmony with earth. They built canals and hydroponic garden cities throughout the ancient Yucatan Peninsula. Some of the Mayan glyphs were allegedly radionic-type insect control devices that broadcast an etheric vibration of the targeted pest.

Edgar Cayce mentions the Mayans and their technology in one reading: “…As for a description of the manner of construction of the stone, we find it was a large cylindrical glass (as would be termed today) cut with facets in such manner that the capstone on top of it made for centralizing the power or force that concentrated between the end of the cylinder and the capstone itself. As indicated, the records as to ways of constructing same are in three places in the earth, as it stands today: in the sunken portion of Atlantis, or Poseidia, where a portion of the temples may yet be discovered under the slime of ages of sea water, near what is known as Bimini, off the coast of Florida. And (secondly) in the temple records that were in Egypt, where the entity acted later in cooperation with others towards preserving the records that came from the land where these had been kept. Also (thirdly) in records that were carried to what is now Yucatan, in America, where these stones (which they know so little about) are now, during the last few months, being uncovered.”

It is believed that an ancient Hall of Records resides somewhere in the Mayan region, probably beneath an existing pyramid complex, in an underground tunnel and chamber system. Some sources say that this repository of ancient knowledge is kept in quartz crystals that are of exceptional quality and capable of holding large amounts of information in the similar manner as a modern CD.

#8. ANCIENT CHINA

Ancient China, known as Han China, is said to have come, like all civilizations, from the huge Pacific continent, Mu. The ancient Chinese are known for their sky-chariots, their geomancy, and the jade manufacture that they shared with the Mayans. Indeed, the ancient histories of the Chinese and the Mayans seem indelibly linked.

Anthropologists makes a good case for a Taoist influence coming to Central America by showing Shang dynasty symbols and motifs (the yin-yang is the most famous, but there are many more) and then relating them to known Mayan art and sculpture. Jade was of particular importance to the Shang Chinese. So far, the source of Chinese jade has not been pinpointed. Much of it may have come from Central America. Even the source of Central American jade is a mystery; many ancient jade mines are believed to be still undiscovered. Anthropologists suggest that Chinese voyages to Mexico, between 500-300 B.C., may have been related to Taoist trade in magic mushrooms or drugs of longevity.

The ancient Chinese are often said to be the originators of every invention from toilet paper, earthquake detectors, paper money, cannons, rocket technology, printing methods, and thousands of other clever and high-tech items. In 1959, archaeologists in China discovered belt buckles made out of aluminum thousands of years ago. Aluminum is generally processed from bauxite with electricity!

9. ANCIENT ETHIOPIA & ISRAEL

Baalbek

From such ancient texts as the Bible and the Ethiopian book Kebra Negast, we have tales of the high technology of ancient Ethiopia and Israel. The temple at Jerusalem is said to have been founded upon three gigantic ashlar blocks of stone similar to those at Ba’albek, Lebanon. Today, the revered Temple of Solomon and Muslim Dome of the Rock mosque exist on this site, whose foundations apparently reach back to the Osirian civilization.

Like much of the later Phoenician construction, the building at the Temple to hold the Ark of the Covenant and the temples in Ethiopia are the last of the megalithic stone constructions. The massive Temple Mount, built by King Solomon on the ruins of earlier megalithic temple, was made to house the ancient relic known as the Ark of the Covenant.

The Ark of the Covenant is said to have been an electrical generator box which housed several sacred objects, including a solid gold statue from earlier cultures that is called the Holy of Holies. This box and gold statue were said to have been removed from the King’s Chamber in the Great Pyramid in Egypt by Moses during the period of the Exodus.

Many scholars believe that the Ark of the Covenant, as well as other ancient artifacts, were actually electrical devices, some of which were worshipped in temples as oracles. The Bible recounts how certain unauthorized persons would touch the Ark and be electrocuted.

10. THE AROI SUN KINGDOM OF THE PACIFIC

The last of my list of ancient civilizations is that of the virtually unknown ancient culture of the Aroi Sun Kingdom of the Pacific. While the so-called lost continent of Mu sank over 24,000 years ago in a pole shift, the Pacific was later repopulated by a racial mixture of all civilizations, coming from Rama, China, Africa and the Americas.

An advanced island nation, with larger areas of land than are currently in the Pacific, grew up around Polynesia, Melanesia and Micronesia. Ancient legends in Polynesia attribute this remarkable civilization to the Aroi Kingdom that existed many thousands of years before the European rediscovery of the Pacific. The Aroi allegedly built many of the megalithic pyramids, platforms, arches, roads and statues throughout the central Pacific.

When some of the more than 400 gravel hills on New Caledonia were excavated in the 1960s, cement columns of lime and shell matter were carbon dated by Yale and the New Caledonia Museum as having been made before 5120 B.C. and 10,950 B.C. These weird cement columns can be found in the southern part of New Caledonia and on the Isle of Pines.

According to the Easter Islanders, the statues of the islands walked or levitated in order to move in a clockwise spiral around the island. On the island of Pohnpei, the Micronesians claim that the stones of the eleven-square-mile city were levitated into place.

The Polynesians of New Zealand, Easter Island, Hawaii and Tahiti all believe that their ancestors had the ability of flight and would travel through the air from island to island. Was this the Air Atlantis flight that stopped in Malta, Ba’albek, and Rama destined for the remote but popular convention center at Easter Island?

 

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Unearth the Hidden Secrets of our Forgotten Past

Top 10 Ancient Civilizations with Advanced Technology Pt. 1

Tiwanaku

Like a real life Indiana Jones, maverick archaeologist David Hatcher Childress has taken many incredible journeys to some of the oldest and most remote spots on earth. Writing prolifically of lost cities and ancient civilizations, he has produced more than six lengthy books, known as The Lost Cities Series, chronicling the dimly remembered glories of obscure locales from the Gobi desert to Puma Punku in Bolivia, from Mohenjo Daro to Ba’albek. We caught up with him shortly before taking off for New Guinea on yet another archeological expedition and asked him if he would be willing to write on the Top 10 Ancient Civilizations with Advanced Technology.

#1. Ancient Mu or Lemuria

According to various esoteric sources, the first civilization arose 78,000 years ago on the giant continent known as Mu or Lemuria and lasted for an astonishing 52,000 years. It is sometimes said to have been destroyed in earthquakes generated by a pole shift which occurred some 26,000 years ago, or at approximately 24,000 B.C.

While Mu did not reach as high a technology, supposedly, as other later civilizations, it is, nevertheless, said to have attained some advanced technology, particularly in the building of long-lasting megalithic buildings that were able to withstand earthquakes. However, it was the science of government that is sometimes said to have been Mu’s greatest achievement.

Supposedly, there was one language and one government. Education was the keynote of the Empire’s success, and because every citizen was versed in the laws of the universe and was given thorough training in a profession or trade, magnificent prosperity resulted. A child’s education was compulsory to the age of 21 in order for him to be eligible to attend citizenship school. This training period lasted for seven years; therefore, the earliest age at which a person could become a citizen of the empire was 28.

#2. Ancient Atlantis

It is said that when the continent of Mu sank, the oceans of the world lowered drastically as water rushed into the newly formed Pacific Basin. The relatively small islands which had existed in the Atlantic during the time of the Lemurian civilization were left high and dry by the receding ocean. The newly emerged land joined the Poseid Archipelago of the Atlantic Ocean to form a small continent. This continent is called Atlantis by historians today, though its real name was Poseid.

Atlantis is believed to have taken technology to very advanced stages, well beyond what exists on our planet today. In the book A Dweller On Two Planets, first dictated in 1884 by Phylos the Thibetan to a young Californian named Frederick Spencer Oliver, as well as in a 1940 sequel, An Earth Dweller Returns, there is mention of such inventions and devices as air conditioners to overcome deadly and noxious vapors, airless cylinder lamps, tubes of crystal illuminated by the night side forces, electric rifles, guns employing electricity as a propulsive force (rail-guns are similar, and a very new invention), mono-rail transportation, water generators, an instrument for condensing water from the atmosphere and the Vailx, an aerial ship governed by forces of levitation and repulsion.

The sleeping clairvoyant, Edgar Cayce, in a reading spoke of the use of aeroplanes and of crystals or firestones used for energy and related applications. He also speaks of the misuse of power and warnings of destruction to come.

#3. The Rama Empire of India

Top 10 Ancient Tech - Mohenjo Daro.jpg

Fortunately, the ancient books of India’s Rama Empire have been preserved, unlike those of China, Egypt, Central America, and Peru. Many of these ancient nations are now either desert wastelands, swallowed by thick jungle, or literally at the bottom of some ocean. Yet India, despite devastation by wars and invasion, managed to maintain a large part of its ancient history.

For a long time, Indian civilization was not believed to date from much earlier than about 500 B.C., only about 200 years prior to Alexander the Great’s invasion of the subcontinent. In the past century, however, the extremely sophisticated cities of Mohenjo Daro (Mound of the Dead) and Harappa have been discovered in the Indus Valley of modern-day Pakistan.

The discoveries of these cities forced archaeologists to push the dates for the origin of Indian civilization back thousands of years. A wonder to modern-day researchers, the cities were highly developed and caused leading archaeologists to believe that they were conceived as a whole before they were built: a remarkable early example of city planning. Even more remarkable is that the plumbing-sewage system throughout the large city is superior to that found in Pakistan, India, and most Asian countries today.

#4. Osirian Civilization of the Mediterranean

It is said that at the time of Atlantis and Rama, the Mediterranean was a large and fertile valley. This ancient civilization, pre-dating dynastic Egypt, was known as the Osirian Civilization. The Nile river came out of Africa, as it does today, and was called the River Stix. However, instead of flowing into the Mediterranean Sea at the Nile Delta in northern Egypt, it continued into the valley, and then turned westward to flow in the deepest part of the Mediterranean Valley where it created a large lake. It then flowed out between Malta and Sicily, and south of Sardinia into the Atlantic at Gibraltar (the Pillars of Hercules). When Atlantis was destroyed in a cataclysmic upheaval, this cataclysmic change in the Atlantic slowly flooded the Mediterranean Basin, destroying the Osirian’s great cities and forcing them to move to higher ground. This theory helps explain the strange megalithic remains found throughout the Mediterranean.

It is an archaeological fact that there are more than 200 known sunken cities in the Mediterranean. Egyptian civilization, along with the Minoan and Mycenean in Crete and Greece are, in theory, remnants of this great, ancient culture. The civilization built huge earthquake-proof megalithic structures and had electricity and other conveniences common during the time of Atlantis. Like Atlantis and Rama, they had airships and other modes of transport, often electrical in nature. The mysterious cart tracks of Malta, which go over cliffs and under water, may well be part of some ancient Osirian tram-line, possibly taking quarried stone to cities that are now submerged.

Probably the best example of the high technology of the Osirians is the amazing platform found at Ba’albek, Lebanon. The main platform is composed of the largest hewn rocks in the world, the famous ashlars of Ba’albek. Some of the individual stones are 82 feet long and 15 feet thick and are estimated to weigh between 1,200 and 1,500 tons each!

#5. Uiger Civilization of the Gobi Desert

Many ancient cities are said to have existed at the time of Atlantis and Rama in the Uiger civilization of the Gobi Desert. Though the Gobi is now a parched land-licked desert, these cities were ocean ports. Edgar Cayce once said that elevators would be discovered in a lost city in the Gobi Desert, and while this has not happened yet, it is not out of the question.

Vimanas and other advanced devices are said to have been in use in the Uiger area, and the famous Russian explorer Nicholas Roerich reported seeing a flying disc over northern Tibet in the 1930s. Perhaps the craft was an ancient vimana coming from a still active city using Uiger technology that exists in Northern Tibet or the Gobi Desert.

Significantly, it is claimed that the Elders of Lemuria, known as the Thirteenth School, moved their headquarters prior to the cataclysm to the uninhabited plateau of Central Asia that we now call Tibet. Here, they supposedly established a library and school known as The Great White Brotherhood.

For instance, the great Chinese Philosopher Lao Tzu, born in 604 B.C., talked frequently of Ancient Masters and their profound wisdom. He wrote the famous book, Tao Te Ching, probably the most popular book ever written in Chinese. When he finally left China, near the close of his very long life, he journeyed to the west to the legendary land of Hsi Wang Mu. According to the ancient Chinese, this was the headquarters of the Ancient Ones. Could this have been The Great White Brotherhood and the Thirteenth School of Mu?

 

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Coral Castle: How A Sick Man Used Ancient Wisdom To Build A Modern Wonder

Coral Castle
The Coral Castle of Homestead, Florida just may be the greatest one-man engineering feat of modern times. But while this odd, mostly open-air “castle” is contemporary, it shares something with one of the world’s greatest architectural mystery: Giza’s pyramids.

Why? Because just like those ancient edifices, the construction of Coral Castle is shrouded in mystery.

Magnetism Meets Eccentric Immigrant

Between the early 1920’s and 1950’s, a Latvian immigrant named Edward Leedskalnin built and then moved one of the greatest wonders of architecture in modern times: Coral Castle. Leedskalnin built the Castle with nothing more than an ancient understanding of magnetism.

How he built and then moved this monument from stone – single-handedly – defies our modern-day understanding of physics. What we do know is that he claimed to use magnetism and “the secrets of the pyramid builders”.

An 1,100-Ton Secret Taken to His Grave

Born on January 12, 1887, in Stāmeriena parish, Livonia, Leedskalnin was known for two things: Coral Castle and his fascination with Magnetism. In fact, as a student of magnetism, he applied his knowledge to understanding how ancient civilizations were able to build megalithic structures such as Stonehenge and of course, the pyramids of the Giza plateau.

Leedskalnin was diagnosed with terminaltuberculosis shortly after the turn of the 20th century, but spontaneously healed, stating that magnets had some effect on his disease. He then moved to Florida in 1919 where he began constructing the massive coral monument he called Rock Gate Park. Over the next 20 years, Leedskalnin moved some 1,100 tons (over 2 million pounds) of pure quarry rock to create his masterpiece.

Leedskalnin worked on Rock Gate Park until his death at the age of 64, taking the secret of its construction with him to the grave.

How Was it Really Built?

Whenever people asked Leedskalnin how he managed to man-handle the massive stones of Coral Castle, he refused to give a direct answer. Instead, he’d simply reply that he understood the laws of weights and physics. “I know the secrets of the people who built the pyramids” he’d say, without disclosing exactly what those secrets might be.

Mysterious “Beads of Light” and a “Perpetual Motion Holder”

2pyramids-of-gizaWhile his conversations were cryptic, Leedskalnin did give us an answer, albeit vaguely, through his published booklets on the theory of magnetism and the Castle. Today, most of these papers are long out of print, although excerpts are found throughout the web, and “Magnetic Current,” one of his booklets, can be found at Leedskalnin.com.

Working only at night and only when he was certain no one was watching, Leedskalnin managed to keep the secret of how he lifted massive blocks single-handedly. What he did say leaves us with more questions than answers.

He claimed, for example, that he could actually see “beads of light” on physical objects. These beads, according to Leedskalnin, were the physical manifestation of nature’s magnetic energy.

But Leedskalnin didn’t just claim to see magnetic energy. He also said that this was what he used, via some sort of mysterious “perpetual motion” holder, to lift any object, no matter how heavy. This device, whatever it may have been, would make the object behave as if it was in water, allowing him to move it without exerting any significant physical energy.

Graham Hancock, Pyramids and Heated Copper

Graham Hancock, one of today’s most outspoken and respected thought leaders in the field of ancient mysteries, provides us with some insight on exactly how Leedskalnin may have shaped the rocks to form Coral Castle, with his insights about Egypt’s pyramids.

Hancock speculated that Egypt’s pyramid builders may have used a form of heated copper to bend the shape of the massive stone blocks before placing them. Could this have been the same or similar method used by Leedskalnin? And instead of copper rods, might he have used – or “activated” – copper already contained within the rock, in the form of raw copper ore?

Wally Wallington

Fast forward to 2011 … Michigan resident Wally Wallington spent 40 years as a construction worker before moving, single-handedly, many of his own massive stones. Wallington claims to have “cracked the code” of this Leedskalnin’s mystery.

Wallington had been fascinated with how Stonehenge, the Pyramids of Egypt and Coral Castle had been built. After retiring, he dedicated most of his waking hours to unlocking the secret that allowed Leedskalnin to single-handedly build Coral Castle.

His goal: Replicate the process exactly in order to build a miniature Stonehenge in his garden.

Sticks, Stones and Levers

Starting out small, Wallington decided to move slabs of stock with his mechanism, then a barn, and kept going bigger and heavier until he went for a ton of pure cut rock. His efforts are paying off, and today he’s demonstrated this by lifting stones over a ton in weight.

Check out this video of Wally Wallington using these stunningly simple methods to move weighty blocks.

The FINAL SHOCKING CLUE That May Explain How A Sickly Man Used Ancient Wisdom To Build A Modern Wonder

While the mystery of how Ed Leedskalnin, a somewhat sickly and undernourished man,  moved massive sized rocks from quarry to castle remains, there is one final clue that gives us insight into how he may have managed it ….

There are rumors surrounding Coral Castle, of Leedskilnan “singing” to the stones in the night, as he would secretly levitate them. Several children were also said to have seen him use “ice cream cones” to make the rocks “float” into place.

While the notion of “ice cream cones” may seem ridiculous, Michael Tellinger, an expert on South Africa’s mysterious Adam’s Calendar, has put together a hypothesis that may support these rumors.

Sound Technology of the Ancients?

Tellinger argues convincingly for the use of sound technology among ancient people as a means of levitating megalithic rocks into place. In his presentations, he shares video demonstrating the use of sound to move small objects. Tellinger also demonstrates the many cone-shaped stones found at certain sites … stones that literally ring when struck together!

Could something so simple as cone-shaped stones have been used to build the likes of sites like the Pyramids, Gobekli Tepe, Stonehenge, Adam’s Calendar … or even the Coral Castle?

What do YOU think about Edward Leedskalnin’s Coral Castle, and how it was built? Share your thoughts below.

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